The Settling of Atlantean People in Iran

 

The king of Assyria Salmanassar III mentiones in the report about the in 845 B.C. taken campaign Parsua, the country of the Persian, which was western of the lake of Urmia at the upper Zab. Eight years later he entered further into the mountains and came into the country of the “Madai” the Meder, where he took gifts

 from27“kings”.This are the first reports about the immigration and the settling of the Atlantian tribes in the North of Persia. In classical historigraphy they are called Indoeuropeans or Indoiraneans. From the inscriptions of the Assyrian kings of the beginning of the first millennium B.C. one can see the following political situation:

In the western Armenian mountains there had risen around the lake of Van at the end of the second millennium a big force: The empire of the Urartaeens. The landscape gave here with the richness of metal of the mountains, the sumtuous meadows in the plains around the lake of Van and the fertile soil in the narrow, deeply carved valleys with dense wood at the mountains very good conditions for the building of an empire. Its power was grounded mainly on mostly good fortified towns on mountains, in the protection of which lived shepherds and farmer. Fortifications and its spreading in the country show good military knowledge.

 

One can suppose with probability that the founders of this new empire, at least in ist upper class, came in their origin from one or more tribes of Atlantean sources . The high level of their architecture, the knowledge of metal working, their military knowledge and that of organisation of an empire are showing unambiguously that this was not a barbarian folk, as lived in the northern steppe. The inscriptions of this people at buildings, steles and rock faces , but besides this also  on devices of metal and on tiles were made in the beginning in Assyrian language, later on also in hieroglyphs and in local language, which is related to the Churritian and is not yet deciphered. Also the extended trade connections to the in the West living Greeks, Italics and Etruscians are pointing out to their origin in the West. Eastern of Urartu there had grown a further state with its centre at the southern plain of the lake of Urmia. The empire of Man. It has probably not reached the importance of Urartu, was a longer time also dependent on it, but its economical importance was not less. For also in Man there had developed a blossoming agriculture with cattle breeding and also metal working had a high level. With that, this can be also a founding of people of Atlantian origin. The Urartaeens met at their attempt to extend in the 10th century B.C. more South with the Assyrian power. There were quarrels, in which had the Urartaeens some success and threatened even the capital Assur, but were at least always thrown back.

In the East of the rule area of Urartu as in its southern edge, the border area to Assur, there had grown several little “kingdoms”. They were situated partly in nearly not accessible valleys of the mountainous country and consisted often only in a to a castle grown rock and an accompanying settlement of a bigger clan or tribe. The population was initially  a mix of  Asianian native inhabitants, tribes immigrated from the Caucasus and restless elements from the Mesopotamian plain. To this are coming now the newcomers of Atlantean origin, which had probably before settled in the plains of the valleys around the big lakes Goekschali and Urmia, as in the mountain valleys of Armenia and Asserbeidschan.

 

Since the time of Schamsi Adad V of Assur (825-812 B.C.) seems ,that the Atlanean element has taken the leading roll under this little “kings”. Urartu and Assur were busy to play off the tribe- and clan chiefs one against the other. By granting in fief towns, which were mostly situated in the rule area of the adversary, that means, in the Urartaeen or Assurean rule area, tried both big powers, to win the “buffer” countries for themselves. In the meantime increased the Atlantean element by steady immigration. Men followed the natural direction of the valleys and came so always further to East and Southeast.

 

In the area of today Lurestan came such tribes of Atlantean origin into contact with Elam, putting to North its feelers. This had won in this time of weakness of Babylon a certain independence. Many of the Atlantean chiefs entered with his man to be available for the Elameans against the handing over of places for living, pastures and part of prey, as they had done on their long way at many places.In the tradition of these tribes has been still conserved their origin in “Aryanam” a name with which the classical historigraphy cannot correspond and calls it “ the land of Arians”. This origin land of the Arians could have been in the region of the Eurpaeen Pyrenaes. Here are Names of persons and places with “Ar”until now frequently to find.

At all this names is to respect, that they are handed down only by word of mouth in several languages one after the other. If existed the written form ,it was often a writing of beginning ,which soon died out again. Also the meaning of some letters changed in the course of time. The name “Aryanam” is found for example firstly in the oldest part of the “Avesta”, the down writing of which in India was only in the sixt century A.C., that means 1400 years after the happening.

 

In the region of today Hamadan happened around 715 B.C. the founding of a new empire. That of the Medean. Its population could be consisting in indigene Asian people and the immigrated tribes of Atlantean origin, which possibly had mixed up with people from the wandered round areas in the steppes of South Russia and the Trans Caucasus. The thought of the foundation of an empire with the capital Egbatana, the Hamadan of today, may be of Atlantean origin. For the people of the steppes as for the indigene Iraneans, this was still a strange thought. In the beginning were surely not all Medean tribes united in this empire, the centre of which were the areas south of the Lake of Urmia, near Hamadan, and more south. Tiglatpileser III (745-727 B.C.)speaks about the” mighty Medeans” which settled as far as the Demavend in the chain of Elburs and the desert of alkali the Dasht-i-Kabir.

 

Around the year 707 B.C. breaks a new flood of immigrants, coming from the Caucasus, over the country. They are the obviously uncultured Kimmerreans, who pounce first on the rich empire of Urartu. King Rusas was able to throw back the first raid and push away the main mass of the flood to Asia Minor. Sargon of Assur took immediately advantage of the situation of need and brought , after his own words “pain of war and lamentation” over the whole of Urartu. In the further fights Urartu was so weakened, that it leaves history as a power. Around 675 B.C. there is a new ruler in the empire of the Medeans with the name Phraortes, who is called in AssurKaschtariti”. When the Assurean ruler Senakherib stays in Elam, Judaea and Egypt he took appropriate of the fertile region of the former empire of Man and tried to extend his rule over the outside of the door of Asia into the plains of Luristan. With the Skythians of the North he agrees temporary. When Assurbarnipal even turns against him, the Skythians fell into his back and he is crushing defeated. He himseld finds the death in the battle. His successor Kyaxares invites following Herodotus the chiefs of the Skythians to a feast, makes them drunken and lets beat to death all the traitors. Their hordes of riders he integrated in his army and lets them the plains of Luristan in which he had them under control.

 

This plains of Luristan proved itself in later times as a treasure trove of special quality. From it comes a big number of arms of splendour, made of Bronze and iron as  other articles which show unambiguously, that its owner were warriors and namely fighter at chariot and rider. Found were these parts obviously in fields of burial, which are situated around resting areas near to water places. They consists of low little hills above chests of stone. Half nomadic Lureans have plundered systematic around 1928 these burial fields and offered for sale its content at the market of Hamadan. Archaeologists found only the empty graves. For science is the dating of these pieces a nearly insoluble riddle , for they were ascribed nearly all people from the third until the end of the first millennium B.C.. Only an Assyrian roll seal, which was found in a little shrine at a source, gave at last a not very satisfying, clue.

 

The parts are long iron swords with handles, decorated with figures, shorter swords from bronze, daggers from both metals, splendid battleaxes, points of lances and arrows, needles for clothing with big heads of animals or with big discs with relief, ornament sheets for clothing, belt fittings and metal containers of all sort. Especially remarkable are the richly decorated big cheek parts of horse snaffles, fittings of war chariots, as a big number of heads of standards. For the latter are an uncommon sort of burial object and over that the mass of heads of standards and splendour and decoration arms surpasses widely the objects of practical use ,one can suppose that there existed also other places of finds , possibly a buried or safe kept treasure. Possibly it came from the capital of the empire of Urartu.

 

The decoration bases nearly completely on motives known also from Assyrian or Urartean objects of art. Over that it remembers at the considerably more modest burial objects of the first Atlantean immigrants. One can suppose from that with high probability, that this are arms and objects which are imported by the Atlantean immigrants, partly even from their homeland in Europe, as especially valuable. They are at least partly objects of a culture from which is until now little known, what makes the comparing interpretation so difficult.

Other similar finds are known from the land behind the western shore of the Kaspian Sea the Talyche. In it were found burials and in them arms and jewellery in a manner, unknown in the near Orient. In the graves were found old roll seals from the Orient and can with that been dated to the end of the second millennium B.C.. This is the time of the sinking of Atlantis and the beginning of the Atlantean migration. The graves in the Talyche are consisting of rectangular stone chests made with slabs, which are porting a gable formed cover also made of slabs. Above them were made little hills made from earth or little stones. All this was surrounded by a circle of little stones. A form of burial which is known from all Atlantean orientated people. The dating of these graves, which was done still after the found burial objects, reaches from 3000 until 800 B.C,. If one regards , that also older valuable pieces, which they took with them, were given to the dead into the grave and after which was dated the burial, is this exactly the time of their immigration into Persia.

The objects are also here arms and jewellery, partly from bronze, partly from iron. There are sheets and pendants for clothing or the bridle of horses. Also fine engraved belt fittings and kettle from bronze were found. Often were used motives of animals as decoration. For the Armenian mountain area exists especially the place of finds Tepe Sialk which shows especial clear the Atlantean character of the immigrants. It shows in its rests of buildings and the burial objects clearly the in Atlantis used structuring of the society. On the ruins of an old village hill raised a mighty square foundation from air dried bricks and on it was standing the strong house of a feudal chief of a tribe. At the foot of the hill laid the far more humble houses of his followers and the huts of slaves and servants, consisting probably in indigene people. All the settling was surrounded by a wall.

 

Also the very extensive burial objects of Tepe Sialk are showing clearly the division in three classes. The richest burials of the feudal chiefs. of their family and nearest friends show pretty worked out arms from bronze and iron, neck jewellery , fittings of helmet, shield and belt and fine worked out containers from bronze. The decoration resembles that of Talyche, but is mostly still prettier worked. The burials of second class are also made as stone chests with gable formed stone cover, but have less burial objects. There are containers from clay or a needle for clothing from metal. Completely simple are the burials of third class. The dead were here sometimes laid into a stone chest or a pit made from air dried bricks without cover. There are no burial objects. Following the reports of the excavation, there are two ethnical groups to discern. The long skulls belong to the indigene group and are the lowest social class. The short skulls are feature of the newcomers and chiefs.

 

After the death of Assurbarnipal in 626 B.C. the Assyrian power came to its end and lost one province after the other. So the king of the Medeans Kyaxares around 615 B.C. felt enough power to attack the Assyrians. After the first failure of the raid against Ninive he turns against the not so well fortified Assur . It is occupied in general assault, to deal not the rich prey with the in the meantime also approaching king of Babylon, Nabupolasar. For both rulers had to fear a come back of the Assyrian power, when the well fortified Ninive was still existent , they formed an alliance, which was sealed by the marriage of the Babylonian prince Nabukhudrossor with the grandchild of Kyaxares, the daughter of his son Astyages. The so united armies turned again against Ninive. The town fell and with it the Assyrian empire, which divided the two rulers under themselves.

Nabupolassar took the old culture land of the fertile half moon and Kyaxares got the mountain lands. To it belonged obviously  also the South East with the old Elam, the Fars of today, for he had the power, to form this area new by giving the whole area to only one , instead of before two Persian princes from the family of the Achemenides for administration. The seat of this prince was Susa.

After regulation of the matters in the South and South East Kyaxares turned to the North West of his empire, to put also here the borders as far as possible. Only at the borders of the Halys he met a strong army of the Lydeans. The darkening of the sun of the year 585 B.C. caused such a fright in both armies, that it came to peace by mediation of the Babylonian king, in which was fixed the Halys as border between the rules of Medeans and Lydeans.

 

Kyaxares died in 584 B.C. and left to his son a big rich country. This began than soon to enjoy the wealth in Atlantean stile. He introduced again the old Atlantean ceremonial and gave in his king seat one shining feast after the other. Also the caste of the priests, which had lost in the rough times of migration its importance and was nothing other than a group of feudal chiefs was anger to regain their preferred position as priest and adviser of the king. This pleased at the other side not to the feudal chiefs from the warrior group, for it lowered their respect and influence. Otherwise had the from indigene old nobility coming chiefs little understanding for from Atlantean sources coming knowledge of the priests, who were now also called magicians. In spite of all prosperity there was so considerable suspense at the kings court.

When the Persian vassal prince in Elam and Parsa, Kyros, around 550 B.C. raised against Astyages, many Medean feudal chiefs left the Medean army with their crowd and moved on to Kyros. Also the magicians had the meaning that they could reach their aims better with Kyros and gained from him this concerning promises about their position at the court. Probably the rebellion in Elam was so a good prepared action. It led to the battle of Pasargadai in which a part of the Medean army moved instantly to Kyros. The rest mutinied , took their king in prison and delivered him to Kyros. This was kind to the old king, who was the father of his mother and with that his grandfather, and kept him in honourable prison. Probably came to the political complot here a family one , which brought to the top of the state the right man at the right time. And this was without doubt Kyros, for in a incredible rise he created in only twelve years an empire. which reached from Asia Minor to India.

Remained have from this beginning time of the Atlantean immigration  into Iran the mighty walls made of gigantic blocks of the Urartean culture, their mighty rock constructions. their magnificent canal and congestion buildings, their terraces for fruit and wine and the magnificent products of their metal working and this is also guilty for the empire of Man. About the king town of the Medean , Egbatana, exist different reports. To verify their content is today not possible, because the town Hamadan covers it completely.

One of it comes from Herodotus and must be regarded carefully, for he liked, to embellish his stories as a teller of fairytales and his sources were often not reliable. After him were the walls of the fortifications blue , white, purple,black and orange painted and the inner walls were covered with sheets of silver and gold. After another report from a later time, coming from Polybios ,was the outer town not fortified at that time, but in the middle was the palace with a strongly fortified citadel. The palace had a roof of tiles made of silver, from which were made after the occupation by Alexander the Great millions of Drachmen.

The only today accessible monumental monuments of Medean sort are a row of rock graves, which resemble in much the Urartean rock work. They show hewn into the rock the façade of a house made of wood and bricks of clay with flat roof. Through a with pillars supported entrance hall one enters in the right angled main room which has partly also supporting pillars. Here are ,hewn into the floor or side walls, right angled hollows as reception of the dead. The stone work shows, that these hollows were in former times closed with stone slabs. The façade of the grave shows symbols as they exist in the near Asian area.

 

The grave of Sakhna shows a sun disk with wings. At the grave at Kizkapan there is the portrayal of a god with four wings and two round disks. In the first is worked in a little human figure above the crescent of the moon and in the second a star with sixteen rays. Over that there are potrayals of men wearing high boots and trousers under a half long frock hold by a belt. The cover of the head is a baschlik. This is without doubt the common Medean clothing. A man in a long cloth ,who stands opposite to a man in Medean costume, is probably a priest or magician. Between both is a desk resembling altar with a half round top part. Probably a stone ? Star, stone and sun disk are pointing to Kanaan and the Atlantean culture room. Also the figure with the crescent of the moon.

 

 

                                                                                                  The Achaemenideans

In the course of the Atlantean migration through the Iran went also ten or twelve tribes through the valleys of the Zagros mountains to South East. They had primarly settled at the shores of the lake of Urmia but felt not further safe in the restless area. Near the “ Gate of Asia” they came in contact with the Elamiteans and got the permission to settle in the region of Elamitean rule against the commitment to provide warriors. Because of the cooler climate the new settlers chose the side valleys of the Bakhtiari Mountains ,especially the region of Malamir. Another part, under them the tribe of Pasargadeans  went more East and settled in the open plain at the Pulvar. Both groups refered to a chief with the name Achaemenes of the tribe of Pasargadeans. His son and successor Teispes was so clever in the lasting quarrels between Proassyrians and Antiassyrians in Elam , that he gained later on the title” king of the land and the town Anschan” from the Assyrians. After his death followed him in Parsa the older son Ariaramnes and in Anschan and Parsumasch the younger son Kyros I. This Kyros was again so clever in the dealings with the current ruler that he gained under the rule of the Medeans of Kyaxares also the administration of the region of his brother. The seat of administration was Susa. After the death of Kyros I the rule went to his son Kambyses and his successor was Kyros II, called “the Great” the way to power of him was described before.