Blossoming of the Atlantean Empire in Middle
the Bronze Age (18,30a)
by Karl Juergen Hepke
The Bronze Age
began in the area between
The knowledge of the
production of bronze can have reached the middle and upper
If the knowledge of the new
alloy in the Aegaeis came also from the West,
The first culture of bronze
By examination of numerous
fields of graves in Middle-Germany much is known about the here resident
Aunjetitz people. They were as descendants of the people of
"bell-formed-tumbler" relatively tall. Men had in the middle 1,71 m
in maximum 1,78 m. The most tall woman reached 1,66 m. The skulls of an at
wore clothes from woven material. There were found indications of looms and
prints from cloth at rings of bronze. The typical needle for cloth was the "Cypriot
Bow Needle" , which is known from
The "people of
Aunjetitz" lived as the farmers of New Stone Age. They cultivated cereals
as barley , emmer and single corn and grew cows, pigs, sheeps and goats as
domestic animals. Skeletons of horses were often found in the proximity of
human burials. As ceramic was mainly produced crockery for daily use. A new
product were so called "idols of bread", pieces of ceramic with
insertions, which are now taken for stamps, objects of cult or weights for the
loom. They are mainly found in countries of eastern middle
The blossoming of bronze
production, when were manufactured big lots of it, was in the late time of the
Aunjetitz people about 1650 B.C. In this time you can speak of mass production
of standard articles. In possibly by dealers created depots in the soil were
found blades of daggers, rings for arm and leg, spirals of wire, axes of
different form and semicircular bended ingots of bronze in often numerous
numbers of pieces.
It is supposed that standard forms of axes and ingots from bronze were used as a sort of money in the normally practised commerce by exchange.
The ore for bronze came from
the mountains of middle
Rich finds of depots were
made in the district of Halle/Saale in Saxony-Anhalt. One suppose that this
relates with the production of salt in that region. Salt was possibly paid with
products of bronze as "money". The finds in this depots reached
sometimes a weight of 100 Kg. Also the graves here were richly provided with
burial gifts from bronze. In spite of the plentiful supply with bronze were
further used the tools, known from the New Stone Age, of stone, bones and
antlers. Out of the early stages are known daggers from flint, imported from
A completely new form of
weapon was the "shafted dagger", which is called in South-Germany
"Atlantian Dagger". It has a long shaft of wood at which is fastened
like an axe by an eye in an angle of 90° a dagger in form of a sharp triangle
with a rib in the middle. In depictions at cliffs and stones in
Further proofs for the far
reaching cultural relationships are the reproduction of a Vaphio tumbler from
the culture of Mykene found near Halberstadt in
For commerce over large distance were used carts with cows as draught animal. Horses were also bred. At the skull of a skeleton of a horse were found two tusks of a boar, which are taken for gags of a snaffle and are pointing out to the use of horses for riding.
From the richly found jewelry
from gold in the "graves of princes" in Saxony, Thuringia and Bohemia
one can conclude, that there was made much "money" with the
production and commerce of bronze and one can really speak of a "golden
Also in other aspect were the funerals of the rich very lavish. In continuation of the custom of graves with big stones they were often buried in chests of stones made from hewed stone slabs. One did not shrink from reuse of slabs from older graves of the culture of big stones, which were partly covered with engraving. Over the chest of stone were piled up other stones and than all covered with a hill from earth. So it was the style of a progressive grave of big stones without the use of them. Normal people were buried in fields of graves. The position of the dead was the same in all graves. They lied on the side, head to the south, legs to the North, looking to the East to the rising sun. In late times of the culture when the wealth of princes had considerably grown were erected huts from hewn trunks and planks of oaks for them.
One in Soemmerda in
In the fields of graves in which were often found more than 100 graves, were already separated places for extended families. Predominantly was buried in pits of earth, but there are also examples of a planking with wood of the pit. Near Nordhausen in
Similar to the people of
Aunjetitz was the development of culture in other groups of this time. The
Bronze Age began here later and it was not acquired such wealth. In these
groups men were mainly farmer and cattle breeder. Because they had no metal
production they looked for the manufacturing of ceramic and produced tools of
stone. Their objects of bronze were in the beginning imported. Later on they
had own production with acquired ingots of bronze or produced their own bronze.
In North Germany came into being about 2300 B.C. the cultural environments of the "Early Nordic Bronze Age" and the "Environment of Soegel-Wohlde" in the South-West of Bremen. A speciality of this environment was the first occurrence of swords from bronze in short form. These swords are known from
The Middle Bronze Age is
usually counted from 1600 to 1300 B.C. .For reason of the now acquired
knowledge it should be counted until 1250 B.C. because the Late Bronze Age,
which has a quite other character, can than better be recognized. In the Middle
Bronze Age all in middle
The usual culture of burials
was in this time from the East of France as far as the
"The Golden Age"
In this time reached the culture of the Bronze Age the whole area of
Apart from bronze appears
increasing yellow gold with high content of silver as burial object. Also
ceramic is varied and creative designed and decorated. Obviously some artists
or schools give free run to fantasy. This is also valid for the design of
jewelry. New are needles with wheels, elaborate decorated hilts of swords and
golden "hats" in form of a cone with half-ball formed decoration at
the cone and a large brim. Their use is still unknown. They show the excellent
level of metal working of that time with the height of the cone of 31 cm and a
thickness of only 0,25 mm with decrease at the brim to 0,1 mm. One of these
hats was found in the
The long distance of the places of finds lets raise the thought that they were a sort of royal signs, like a crown, with which the king or main priest of that area made impression at celebrations. After other opinion was the hat the top of a post as symbol of the sun or a god. One of the recent theories means that the impressed signs are containing a secret calendar of the priests. Also the Hittits had similar symbols.
Another find of gold from the
district of Rhine-Sieg is finding also parallels at different places of the
Atlantian Empire. It is a big tumbler of gold containing nearly one liter and a
weight of 220 g. Similar tumblers were found in Rillaton in
The wealth of the group of
Aunjetitz at the middle and upper
The people of Stade buried
with preference in graves with chests of stones covered with hills of earth.
Some of these hill graves can still be seen at the rand of the hinterland in
higher position with best sight into the valley of the
For both regions were important rand areas of the Atlantian Empire the far reaching culture is indicated in signifying finds. The structure of the country, which knows dry sandy soils as marshes and bogs, provided over that the at least partly conservation of perishable material as wood, leather and fabrics.
So there are known from the
group of Lueneburg bonnets with wings from wool or leather, which were only worn
by the female head of the family. They remember with their highly decorated
fez-formed middle part, at which were sewed decorated wigs, reaching to the
height of the chin, to the head decoration of the pharao of
The clothing of men was also kept together by needles from bronze. But nearly without exception they were less decorated. Besides men wore a ring of bronze at both arms. As weapon men had axe and dagger, both from bronze or bow with quiver and dagger. The combination axe and bow is missing. One was either near or far fighter. From the different furnished graves one can clearly discern social differences. This finds its expression again in the size of the grave. In the later time important dead were buried in "houses of dead", which were sometimes burned with him . Over the ashes was than piled up the hill of burial. Mostly only one person was buried under a hill. But there were also graves of mother and child, man and wife or two men or even three or four persons beneath the same hill. Sometimes they were buried at the same time, sometimes one after the other.
A special kind of burial was
discovered in the Lueneburg Heath and a small stripe along the lower
Also the burial of died "at the same time" in the same grave can be taken as sacrifice of near relatives. One speaks here of the custom of "following death". As is known this custom was practised until our times in India as so called "burning of the widow" and was first forbidden in the time of British rule in India.
To means for sacrifices are also taken the often found stones with a groove. Here is a stone nearly one meter large provided with a surrounding groove several centimeters deep. This is often called groove of blood. With it are combined sacrifices of animals. But there were no bones found near these stones, only raised results of phosphate in the soil are pointing out to use of organic material near it. It is possible that these stones were only used as anchors on ships or as weight for a technical use.
In the region of the group of Stade were found several graves in which were buried noble fighters. Also with this is shown the strategic importance of this area. The graves contained rich burial gifts. A speciality are richly decorated razors and rests of a chair, which you could fold up, from wood and leather, richly ornamented with jewelry from bronze.
Similar chairs were found in
Juetland and in the North-West of Mecklenburg. They are also known from the
graves of pharaohs of
A special find from this area
is beside the already mentioned four wheels of chariots a stone with picture of
three human beings in peculiar posture. One has raised his hands as for praying
but for that unusually spread his fingers. The figure in the middle of the
group holds high raised an object as an axe or a shafted dagger, maybe as
ritual device. The right, turned away figure is carrying a not to identify
object in his wide extended hands.
Following the posture it offers a gift. Right and left of this figure are two deepened bowls. All figures are naked and have faces remembering to birds. The depiction has parallels in the paintings at rocks in
A further speciality of
They are made from big field stones large 1m to 1m with a weight unto 5000 kg. The material is mostly red granite. At one side they are graded and bear unto 17 concentric deepened circles. Mostly they have a hole or deepening in the center. About their meaning also nothing is known. Possibly they had a ritual purpose in the passed Big Stone Age or were a part of a grave which was destroyed in christian times. The exactness of working can also point out to a stencil, used for the production of round objects from wood or metal, perhaps for wheels.
While jewelry in the area
South of the
It is, as the bronze, often used as spirale of wire for the keeping of hair or as ring at the finger. Mostly this gold jewelry is worn by man. The gold is supposed to come from
Continuation in part 2: The Effects of the Catastrophe of 1250 B.C. .
Read to this in English: The History of Atlantis, the forgotten Origin of our Culture By Karl Juergen Hepke
Or as a book in German language:
DIE GESCHICHTE VON ATLANTIS, der vergessene Ursprung unserer Kultur
by Karl Juergen Hepke
TRIGA-DER VERLAG, D 63584 Gruendau-Rothenbergen, Germany, 2nd Edition, Hardcover, 268 Pages, EUR 22,00, ISBN 978-3-89774-539-1 ,