Climate and Ascent of the Level of
the Sea in
in the time 120 000 B.C. until now and the effects in history .
von Karl Juergen Hepke
The last warm time,
comparable with that of now, happened in
In this time lived in the area of
The following cold time called after the
The Elbe was with that a nearly insuperable northern border of Central Europe and was possibly the reason for the idea of antique times, that earth was also in the North bordered by the ocean.
In 11 000 B.C. ended the cold time relatively quick with the so-called Boelling-Interstadial and moved on, after a phase of cooling , to the Alleroed-Interstadial in which the middle temperature of the year was higher than that of today.
In this time the culture of the Magdalenien came to
The Magdalenien was finished by another cold time,
which was probably the consequence of the gigantic impact of an asteroid or
comet in the western part of the
With the salinization of the soil by sea water and low temperatures in the following time there could only exist a barren vegetation of steppe with the silver-thistle (Dryas), which gave the name to that time. It moved with the washing out of the salt by rain to a tundra of bushes and than about 8250 B.C. to forest.
With the increasing level of the sea caused by earth
warming and pole motion the
During the following warm time of the so-called
Atlantikum until 3200 B.C. three advances of the North Sea reached the
Hadelnder Bucht and the lake of Bederkesa and penetrated with that 20 Km more
into the country than now. Another push followed about 2500 B.C. As far as this
area the sea came also in the time of the Eem-Sea in which the middle
temperature was as high as in the time of Atlantikum.
The at first quick ascent of the sea level began since 2500 B.C. to get slower and was interrupted some times by dents in the curve of ascent. The first of these dents lies before 2000 B.C. and can have to do with the impact of a meteorite near Aorounga in the
In this time the North-Sea withdrew and with the large
rainfalls, which were part of the worsening of climate, were created peats in
the lowlands. They were covered with silt when the ascent continued. These peat
areas are reaching partly long into the sea and are attesting with that
considerable changes of the line of the shore. They give fixed points for the
writing of the curve of changing of the sea level and give information about
the climate of that time.
The next big dent in the curve of ascent is in 1200 B.C.. It reaches til 600 B.C., rises than quickly again and reaches nearly the old curve of ascent. Probably it is the information about an impact of a meteorite in the eastern Atlantic in front of
There are further dents about 300 B.C., 600 A.C. and 1200 A.C..The dent of 300 B.C. was possibly the reason for the Cimbers to leave their home in
Nowadays the natural ascent of the sea level has stabilized at nearly 25 cm a century. That shows , that the change of climate, caused by the move of the poles in 9000 B.C. is today not completed. The recent influence of by men caused warming of earth is not contained in the 25 cm ascent.
after: Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser. Stade 1995 (12a)
Changes of climate in the Near-Orient
From the surrounding areas of the
The layers were examined at the "Geologisch
Palaeontologisches Institut" of the
For that were taken soil samples from the layers. The pollen were washed out by complicated methods and their sort and quantity was categorized. As typical for the predominant climate was chosen the pollen of the olive tree for humide climate and at the other side the pollen of "Achillaea fragrantissima", a sort of yarrow, for dry climate. Both were examined to its relation of quantity during 5000 years.
The result are the following pictures.
Because the olive tree is a plant of culture, well estimated by men and supported in tree cultures, it is necessary to see beside the influence of climate also the influence of men for its spreading. Quite clear is for that in the left picture the beginning of cultivation of the olive tree by men since 4300 B.C. with a big increase of its pollen. The at this time predominating warm climate of the so called "Atlantikum" was not negativ but more positiv for it.
Very interesting is than the deep dent at 2300
B.C.which is probably due to the impact of the asteroid of Aorounga in the
Exactly at 1250 B.C. follows the next big collapse, which, slowly increasing, goes until 700 B.C. From 700 B.C. until 0 the level goes up nearly to the height before the collapse, that means the normal level.
This sudden collapse at 1250 B.C. can only be the consequence of an abrupt change of climatic conditions for growth and blossom of the olive trees. Known conditions which can create this, are sudden cooling with bad cloudy weather and much rain. This can obstruct the blossom of trees and with that the fly of pollen.
A sudden considerable warming of climate, which has such consequences, is neither climatic nor biological imaginable.
The since 1200 B.C. beginning penetration of the "sea-people" into the near orient and the with that connected military conflicts, which lead to considerable damages to the cultures of olive trees by deforestating to gain wood for heating in the period of cooling and also to get timber to reconstruct destroyed and burned houses and towns, was possibly also a reason for the long lasting period of weakness of pollen of olive trees.
The examination of pollen of yarrow, a plant which flourishes also at dry soil relatively well, allowes , compared to the olive tree, much less conclusion to the condition of environment and climate. It is a quickly growing and to changed conditions good adapting weed which conqueres immediatelly no more cultivated areas and takes profite from increased humidity at before too dry soil. Also blooming and with that the production of pollen can flexibly take profite from short periods of fine weather.
The increasing frequency of pollen of this plant in times of decreasing frequency of pollen of olive trees must therefore not lead to the conclusion, that it was in that time extremely hot and dry, what is supposed until now by some experts.
This assumption is probably due to a tendency of imagination, based on the nowadays recognized proceeding warming and dryness of northern areas of earth, combined with the upper described ascent of the sea level.
For in the short time, in which exists modern science of climate there was no event, which caused considerable worsening of climate, the with that created phenomenons are not much known and with that less respected.
As conclusion of all this, one can say, that even the
phenomenons at the European North Sea coast as the insight from evaluation of
pollen in the area of the eastern Mediterranean are showing, that nearly
exactly at 1250 B.C., probably caused by the catastrophe of Atlantis occurs an abrupt
considerable worsening of climate, which ,slowly decreasing, lasts until 700
B.C. and than comes back to the normal level. That worsening caused a big
migration of northern and western people into the eastern area of
(Diagrams of pollen from TV-program "ARTE" named "Auf den Spuren der Seevoelker", September 2007)