Climate and Ascent of the Level of the Sea in Central Europe(12a)
in the time 120 000 B.C. until now and the effects in history .

von Karl Juergen Hepke

The last warm time, comparable with that of now, happened in Central Europe in the time from 125 000 to 113 000 before today in the so-called Eem - Intergacial. By finds of pollen its course is known. It began with vegetation of birch and pine, came with increasing temperatures to the dominance of oak and hazel and than to that of hornbeam and spruce and finished in a time of spruce.

In this time lived in the area of Germany still the elephant of forest, which was provable hunted by men. The optimum of climate had a little bit higher temperature than that of today.

The following cold time called after the Vistula, was with 100 000 years longer than all preceding. The glaciers penetrated as far as the situation of Hamburg. Their melting-water formed the big valley of the Elbe. It was the drain for all melting water as far as the Baltic area and reached a width of 10 to 30 Km.

The Elbe was with that a nearly insuperable northern border of Central Europe and was possibly the reason for the idea of antique times, that earth was also in the North bordered by the ocean.

In 11 000 B.C. ended the cold time relatively quick with the so-called Boelling-Interstadial and moved on, after a phase of cooling , to the Alleroed-Interstadial in which the middle temperature of the year was higher than that of today.

In this time the culture of the Magdalenien came to Germany with a relatively dense population. With the enormous mass of melting-water the Elbe reached in that time its maximum of water volume.

The Magdalenien was finished by another cold time, which was probably the consequence of the gigantic impact of an asteroid or comet in the western part of the Atlantic. This impact caused a move of the poles and the world wide catastrophe of the Flood. By the flooding of northern Germany with sea water all vegetation of woods and all animal and human life was destroyed and nearly all traces of settlement were extinguished.

With the salinization of the soil by sea water and low temperatures in the following time there could only exist a barren vegetation of steppe with the silver-thistle (Dryas), which gave the name to that time. It moved with the washing out of the salt by rain to a tundra of bushes and than about 8250 B.C. to forest.

With the increasing level of the sea caused by earth warming and pole motion the North Sea had reached about 4200 B.C. the area of Elbe and Weser. The oldest contact by flooding lies 14,4 m below the level of today in the district of Wuerden.

During the following warm time of the so-called Atlantikum until 3200 B.C. three advances of the North Sea reached the Hadelnder Bucht and the lake of Bederkesa and penetrated with that 20 Km more into the country than now. Another push followed about 2500 B.C. As far as this area the sea came also in the time of the Eem-Sea in which the middle temperature was as high as in the time of Atlantikum.

The at first quick ascent of the sea level began since 2500 B.C. to get slower and was interrupted some times by dents in the curve of ascent. The first of these dents lies before 2000 B.C. and can have to do with the impact of a meteorite near Aorounga in the
Sahara, which caused a worsening of the climate round the world and finished the warm time of the Atlantikum.

In this time the North-Sea withdrew and with the large rainfalls, which were part of the worsening of climate, were created peats in the lowlands. They were covered with silt when the ascent continued. These peat areas are reaching partly long into the sea and are attesting with that considerable changes of the line of the shore. They give fixed points for the writing of the curve of changing of the sea level and give information about the climate of that time.

The next big dent in the curve of ascent is in 1200 B.C.. It reaches til 600 B.C., rises than quickly again and reaches nearly the old curve of ascent. Probably it is the information about an
impact of a meteorite in the eastern Atlantic in front of Iberia which caused again a worsening of climate and the catastrophic sinking of all towns and settlements situated at the coast line by an immense wave.

There are further dents about 300 B.C., 600 A.C. and 1200 A.C..The dent of 300 B.C. was possibly the reason for the Cimbers to leave their home in
Denmark and northern Germany and go to the South. The dent of 600 A.C. induced possibly the Saxons to go in big parts to England to gain there additional land for feeding of the people. The dent of 1200 A.C. shows a cold period in the Middle Age. It ends in a fast ascent of the sea level about 1300 A.C. which in combination with big storm tides made large parts of the coast area to a victim of the waves.

Nowadays the natural ascent of the sea level has stabilized at nearly 25 cm a century. That shows , that the change of climate, caused by the move of the poles in 9000 B.C. is today not completed. The recent influence of by men caused warming of earth is not contained in the 25 cm ascent.

after: Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser. Stade 1995 (12a)

Changes of climate in the Near-Orient

From the surrounding areas of the Dead Sea at the end of the valley of the Jordan river were taken pillars of sediments at places covered by the sea in earlier times but now dry, coming from the time between 7000 and 2000 B.C. The absolute dating was made with pieces of wood of twigs, found in the layers.

The layers were examined at the "Geologisch Palaeontologisches Institut" of the university of Bonn (Germany) for included pollen and its frequency to gain conclusions to the climate of the eastern Mediterranean Sea and especially for the zone flowed through by the Jordan river.

For that were taken soil samples from the layers. The pollen were washed out by complicated methods and their sort and quantity was categorized. As typical for the predominant climate was chosen the pollen of the olive tree for humide climate and at the other side the pollen of "Achillaea fragrantissima", a sort of yarrow, for dry climate. Both were examined to its relation of quantity during 5000 years.

The result are the following pictures.

Because the olive tree is a plant of culture, well estimated by men and supported in tree cultures, it is necessary to see beside the influence of climate also the influence of men for its spreading. Quite clear is for that in the left picture the beginning of cultivation of the olive tree by men since 4300 B.C. with a big increase of its pollen. The at this time predominating warm climate of the so called "Atlantikum" was not negativ but more positiv for it.

Very interesting is than the deep dent at 2300 B.C.which is probably due to the impact of the asteroid of Aorounga in the Sahara. It caused a remarkable cooling of climate and lead to the first big wave of immigration to the Near Orient (Hyksos). The by that increased population needed a further creation of cultures of olive trees, which reached than its maximum with appropriate frequency of pollen. After that military conflicts let fall back the cultures to normal level in the following time.

Exactly at 1250 B.C. follows the next big collapse, which, slowly increasing, goes until 700 B.C. From 700 B.C. until 0 the level goes up nearly to the height before the collapse, that means the normal level.

This sudden collapse at 1250 B.C. can only be the consequence of an abrupt change of climatic conditions for growth and blossom of the olive trees. Known conditions which can create this, are sudden cooling with bad cloudy weather and much rain. This can obstruct the blossom of trees and with that the fly of pollen.

A sudden considerable warming of climate, which has such consequences, is neither climatic nor biological imaginable.

The since 1200 B.C. beginning penetration of the "sea-people" into the near orient and the with that connected military conflicts, which lead to considerable damages to the cultures of olive trees by deforestating to gain wood for heating in the period of cooling and also to get timber to reconstruct destroyed and burned houses and towns, was possibly also a reason for the long lasting period of weakness of pollen of olive trees.

The examination of pollen of yarrow, a plant which flourishes also at dry soil relatively well, allowes , compared to the olive tree, much less conclusion to the condition of environment and climate. It is a quickly growing and to changed conditions good adapting weed which conqueres immediatelly no more cultivated areas and takes profite from increased humidity at before too dry soil. Also blooming and with that the production of pollen can flexibly take profite from short periods of fine weather.

The increasing frequency of pollen of this plant in times of decreasing frequency of pollen of olive trees must therefore not lead to the conclusion, that it was in that time extremely hot and dry, what is supposed until now by some experts.

This assumption is probably due to a tendency of imagination, based on the nowadays recognized proceeding warming and dryness of northern areas of earth, combined with the upper described ascent of the sea level.

For in the short time, in which exists modern science of climate there was no event, which caused considerable worsening of climate, the with that created phenomenons are not much known and with that less respected.

As conclusion of all this, one can say, that even the phenomenons at the European North Sea coast as the insight from evaluation of pollen in the area of the eastern Mediterranean are showing, that nearly exactly at 1250 B.C., probably caused by the catastrophe of Atlantis occurs an abrupt considerable worsening of climate, which ,slowly decreasing, lasts until 700 B.C. and than comes back to the normal level. That worsening caused a big migration of northern and western people into the eastern area of Mediterranean and is known from the history of Egypt as invasion of the "sea people".

(Diagrams of pollen from TV-program "ARTE" named "Auf den Spuren der Seevoelker", September 2007)