Atlantean Tradition at the Celts of the Islands.(8c)

                                                                           by  Karl Juergen Hepke

 

The Celts are the first people north of the Alps, from who are existing written reports. Therefore they seem to be especially suited to give information about early times in this area. One identifies the Celts today without exception after their language and their culture, not on the base of any distinguishing features of body or race. They were, for reason of their long history of moving, which had lead them deep into Asia, a coloured mix of all people living between Atlantic and India, in which the originally in the West living formed the majority. This majority was supported by the parts of people, which rested in the country, mixed up with the in some waves returning emigrants.

One is supposing today, that before the emigration after the Atlantean catastrophe of 1250 B.C. existed a “Common Celtic”, understood by all people. It divided later into two different dialects , of which the “Goidelic” ore “Gaelic”, spoken from the Britain Islands to Iberia, is the older one. The continental Celts developed than, after this theory , a variation, named “Brythonic”. This spread later to Brittany and replaced there the “Goidelic”.

 Perhaps the users of the Brythonic dialect belonged to a later wave of immigrants, which poured over their previous areas of settlement and imposed their language, where they were in majority. To the today existing Celtic languages are counted the Old Irish, the Manx of the Island of Man, the Scottish Gaelic , the Welsh, the Cornish and the Breton.

In course of the sixth century B.C. , when the climate changed again to warm and dry, the tribes, which were called later on “Celts”, like their northern neighbours, which were called later on “Teutons” migrated again to Europe and spread in all until than only sparely inhabited areas. Besides the change of climate also the political condition in their settling areas, to which belonged the area of Near Orient, which suffered under the actions of resettlement and terror of the state of Assur , can have been the reason for the backward migration . One moved from the terror by emigration and the loss of population lead to the decline and disbanding of the state of Assur.

In the fifth century B.C. reached the first tribes North Italy, where they met the Etruscans. At 474 B.C. they defeated the Etruscans near the river Tessin and spread than into the North Italian deep plain. Their conflict with the Etruscans lead to an ask for help to Rome, which treated the Celts very scornfully. The infuriated Celts defeated the Romans in two battles and conquered and plundered Rome. Only the hill of the Capitol, which was made a fortress, remained in Roman hand. From the occupation of Rome by the Celts the Romans had to liberate themselves by an enormous sum of money.

So here rose an “animosity from the beginning” and all Roman writers , except those of Celtic origin, told in following times only scornful and negative from the Celts. All reports by the Romans about Celtic customs and equipping have to be seen and rated under this aspect.

Also Greek people had to suffer under the raids of the Celts. The Macedonians were defeated and also an army consisting of contingents of all Greek city states at the Thermopyles. After that, the Celts plundered the temple of Pythia in Delphi, the richness of which had obviously lured them. The here conquered treasures the Romans found later on at Toulouse. So they gained also at the Greeks no sympathies  and came into the reputation of “Barbarians”, what means their name ”Keltoi” in Greek language , becoming later on their peoples name.

The courage and bravery of the Celts was proverbial in antique world . They gave mercenaries to Egypt, Syracuse and Carthage. Primary as warrior on horseback they were highly estimated. Probably a heritage of parts with Skythian  past. They had like the Indians a caste of warriors, the “Gaesatae” with own rituals. These fought naked , because they thought , their Karma could than better develop and in the case of death the reincarnation was accelerated. In Irish mythology exists this military caste still as ”warrior from the red branch” and as ”Fianna”, warriors ,who guarded the High King. Beside the caste of warriors existed, similar to India of the “Vedic time”, the class of the Educated, called “Druids” at the Celts, the class of producers of goods and the class of serving and working manually people.

Later on, in the time of codification of the Irish system of rights, which based on the old order, were existing five classes:

1. The kings and tribe chiefs

2. The Educated and higher professional groups.

3. The fonctionnaires  and  judges

4. The clan belonging, who cultivated the land and gave military service in time of war

5. Those , who had no civil rights: criminals, working at their penalty , prisoners of war and hostages.

 

Here should not be spoken about the long lasting quarrels of the Celts with the Romans. They could be read in every book of history. At last Rome had conquered the whole Celtic area of settling except the island of Ireland and the northern area of the British island and ruled there until the introduction of Christianity  as religion of state . The not Roman occupied areas staid in old believe until the fifth century. Than Christianity spread also here. Promoted was this spreading by former priests of the old religion, that is the Druids, who had recognized Christianity as agreeable religion for themselves , which based at  least on their believe and in which they thought to can teach their familiar ideas again. This was an error, which should lead early or later to conflicts with in other parts of the Roman empire, as in Alexandria and Rome , sitting ecclesiastical authorities.

Who were really the “Druids”?. Their name is derived today unanimously from “dru-vid”, what means ”strong or all”=dru und “see”=vid ( the Latin stem from videre=see). That means, the Druid is somebody, who can see all. Today one would describe him or her as a highly educated person with prophetic abilities. The Druid can be man or woman. There is no difference. The Druids felt, like the old Atlanteans , themselves as successors of the Gods and as guardians of the knowledge, received from them.

This knowledge should be passed by celestial order only orally to persons, selected by the druids. It must be learned by memory, what lead to times of education on to twenty years. This reports Caesar, who was as Roman and war leader against the Celts not very reliable in his statements about the adversary. More particular about the education is later on to see in the codification of the Irish Brehon laws, which based on the old order. After this required the reaching of the highest degree of education at least twelve years. The first degree was reached in two years. It was called ”fochluc” because its art was so little as a twig “Fochlacan” (veronica). After three years reached the pupil “mac fuirmid”. In the fourth he was called °dos”= “young tree”. In the fifth he was called “cana” and in the sixth ”cli” after ”cleith” the plinth of a house.

With that, the basic training was reached, and passed now to a study of a couple of years. At passing all examinations he could reach after one to three years the degree “anruth”= “noble creek” and after twelve years he became “ollamh”= “professor”. In every art or profession the “ollamh” was the highest reachable degree. A builder of houses was called so as a goldsmith, jurist, doctor or judge.

In the six or seven centuries of migration of the Atlantean tribes through Europe and Asia under often difficult conditions was surely the class of the “Educated” difficult to conserve. Surely in this time ,for the Celtic and Teutonic tribes, much of the knowledge of natural sciences, that brought to blossom the Atlanteans in Babylon and India, was lost as not so important , as far as this was also known by these tribes. What was not lost, was the knowledge of religious matters, the matters of right, of medicine, of history and “literature” of the people, things, which were daily asked by them and formed their position in the community.

So is to explain. that after resettling Druids made journeys through different Celtic countries to replenish their knowledge, which they thought to be only fragments, at Druids of other countries or in “Druid schools” , existing for example in Brittany. Additionally one can suppose, that in some areas ,and to this one can tell the British Islands , in the population, which had not participated the emigration, were also Druids, who had conserved the old knowledge, and were now an important spring for the returning Druids.

This could also explain, why in the language group of the Island Celts are contained Hamito-Semitic elements, which are existing also in Hebrew, Aethiopian and Old-Egyptian , languages, which come from the Old-Atlantean language. This “old-fashioned” language was probably conserved also at the on the Islands remaining people.

Which are now the important lessons and customs of Druidic and with that traditional Atlantean knowledge ?

A.    The lessons.

1.     The human soul is indestructible. After death it goes to an “Other-world” and returns from it in a reincarnation .That is another birth in a new life on earth. This lesson is in principle according to the lessons of India and can with that be taken for common Atlantean heritage.

2.     World is indestructible also if temporary water or fire are dominant. Here speaks the direct experience with two dramatic events , namely the impacts of  meteorites at 1250 B.C. and 8500 B.C. and the recovery after the catastrophes and shows, how Celtic men were aware of these happenings .

3.     Men have a free will and are neither dependent to an original sin nor to a predestination in their decisions. He decides alone how he fulfils his Karma. How we will see ,was preprogrammed in this point the conflict with the Roman church.

4.     For men with knowledge and capable of insights, the will of God is to recognize in signs in nature. It is therefore possible for him, to predict future events or developments with high probability. The evidence for this assertion have shown many Druidic predictions.( After the fire of the Capitol of Rome they predicted ,300 years before it happened in reality, the decline of Rome and the following rule of people, living north of the Alps.)

B.    The special customs.

5.     The Druids worshipped the woods and groves and thought them to be holy. They had a special worship for the oak. The mistletoe that grows on it had a special meaning and was cut at special times. The teaching of the pupils of Druids happened preferably in holy groves.

6.     The Druids came together at certain days at central meeting places, which laid with priority in the middle of the prevailing area of settlement, to give the same length of way to all, coming to the meeting. This place was thought to be holy and was defended especially hard in the case of penetration of foreign armies .

7.     Their oral tradition was so good, that the Druids in the year 69. A.C knew exactly the victory of the Celts about the Romans at the 18th of July 390/387 B.C.

8.     The Celts cultivated mainly no cereal but lived from milk products and meat from cattle breeding .

9.     They possessed a script which was called “Oghamand was used for writing of orders and laws on stones. This is corresponding to a custom spread at all people, coming from  Atlantean origin and reaches from the Egyptians over Hammurabbi at Babylon , Aschoka in India to Moses at the mountain of Sinai.

10. They used a mystic of numbers in which plaid the number” Three” a special roll. Other important numbers were the five, the nine as three times three and the thirty three. The three went as Trinity into the Heaven of Gods of the Celts and later on of Christianity.

C.    The roll of women.

           Contrary  to the cultures of Greek and Romans women had much more rights at the Celts. They could practise all professions, also that of a Druid, ruler or warrior. In Celtic history there are many famous examples as Macha Mong Ruadh (377-331 B.C.), Cartimandua (43-69 A.C.), Boadicea (around 61 A.C.), Chiomara (around 189 A.C.). The Irish Brehon system of rights saw women as lawyers and judges (e. g. Brigh as famous Brehon judge.)

Women could take up the succession of princes and kings and gain with that the highest authority, while the normal was the male succession. The woman could inherit property and to her belonged further all goods, that she has brought into the marriage. She could at divorce obtain all what has given her husband as present to her.

Divorces were possible as from side of the woman as the mans side. If a man has dishonoured himself and sunk to the lowest class , concerned that not the position of his wife. The woman was only responsible for her own debts, not for that of her husband.

If one compares this system with that ,what is now practised in most western states and has its origin in Roman right, it appears really as the more modern and practicable. For it avoids the catastrophic effects of such “modern” achievements as liability in family, equalization of accrued gains, statutory equalization of pensions and maintenance payment, which often is leading to the ruin of the concerned ones.

The difference in the two legal systems is before all founded in the fundamental view of the roll of women in society. In the Celtic and Vedic-India , that means in the original Atlantean system, she was completely acknowledged equal to the man. In the Roman system she is regarded as subordinated, less qualified, and therefore in need of protection. This lives since the time of Roman rule, in spite of all lip-service to equal-rights, still in the head of men and is refreshed again and again by conservative institutions, as the Christian church. One must although see, that also in India women lost more and more their rights and also at the Celts in the course of history, that means in Christian times, many rights of women got lost.

 

About the world of Gods here will be reported especially about that of the Celts of the islands, because the heaven of Gods of the Celts of the continent was much influenced by the early integration into the Roman area of culture. Besides this were introduced many Gods of nature at the Continental Celts as the Island Celts in the long time of migration and the intensive quarrel with nature. They will be less respected here ,because especially the Atlantean tradition shall be regarded . The Druids of the Celts of the islands saw their Gods as their predecessors, they had still the opinion of them as in Atlantean times all Atlantean people.

 

A God which is found in many names is Bel. His name is also Bile , what in names of today gets often Bille, Belem or Belenus. He gave the name to the “Belemnites”

the “ wedge of thunder” which are found as stoned rests of squids in much lime stones in Europe. He corresponds to the Canaanitic Baal, who is in the Holy Bible the older God of the in Canaan living people and to Jave, the God of the Jews, successful in concurrence. After Caesar he is “Dis-pater”, that is progenitor of the Celts.

 

A further God is Lugh, Llew in Welsh, Lugus in Gallic. After him are named Lyon, Leon, Loudan, Loudun, Laon in France, Leiden in Holland, Liegnitz in Schlesien, today Poland. Lughnasad at the beginning of August , the old harvest feast for the cereal, is his holyday. In Irish he is still known as Lunasa, at Man as Luanistyn and in Scotland as Lunasad or Lammas feast. In the areas of early Christianity, where one was very sensitive to heathen customs and had assistance in power of the state in form of the Roman empire, was this holyday obliterated because of its rite of death- and resurrection as heathen and Lugh was because of his way into underworld even identified with the devil.

 

The God Taran, Tyr, Thor, Donar, a God of thunder, gave his name to Tours, Tauran and Thouars in France, Tyrus in Canaan, Tarquinia in Etruria, Tharsis in Andalusia and Tarent in South Italy.

 

The tendency of the Celts, to worship their Gods as trinity was already mentioned. This seems to be an Indo European tradition. At the Hindus consists the ”Trimurti” in  Brahma, the creator, Vishnu, the protector and Shiva ,the destroyer. At the Greek in Zeus (heaven) ,Poseidon (sea) and Pluto (underworld). There are existing three goddesses of fate, three furies, Three Graces, three times three Sibyllinic Books, three times three Muses. Men consist in the trinity of body, soul and spirit and the by them inhabited world in earth, sea and air.

 

The Celts saw nature as animal, vegetarian and mineral, the cardinal colours were Red, Yellow and Blue. The Gods were worshiped in threefold form and their trinity went after groundwork of the early Church Fathers and the Greek ,through a Gallic Celt, the bishop of Tours, Hilarius (around 315-367 ) with his work “ De Trinitate” as Father, Son and Holy Spirit into Christian Faith. Later on became this in Catholic practise of worshiping the trinity: Father God as Creator and Master of World, Christ as master of Earth and Maria as mother and virgin goddess. With that one returned de facto to the old Atlantean and Canaanitic trinity El, Baal and Astarte, under new names.

 

As one can see, necessities of worship have a considerable ability of remain , what does not really speak against them. More clearly as in the world of Gods, their names and functions, is expressed their Atlantean heritage in the holydays of the Celts. Obviously holydays have a much better ability of remain as with them connected Gods or events. So it is explainable, that even Christian Church has obtained these holydays, in which sometimes the contents were changed, what does not prevent people from cultivating the old contents until today.

 

The most sinister, but also most impressive holyday is Samhain, the feast of the deceased in the night to the first of November . In this time the separation to the world of the deceased is less existent and often becomes blurred like the world, lying in fog. The souls of the deceased get in connection to the living and fill them with fear or trust. Men hollow out pumpkins and cut in it shocking faces ( the highest Druidic symbol for protection) and lighten it from inside with a candle, to frighten unwelcome souls. In Celtic  influenced countries is this holyday until now celebrated as Halloween. From Christian Church it was taken over as All Souls Day.

 

The next old Atlantean holyday, documented in many megalithic stone settings and celebrated further by the Celts, is the solstice of winter, now at the 21ce of December, in the time of the old Celts at the 24th of December. It is the birthday of the God of sun, who gets than more and more power . It is celebrated with fire or with much light in form of candles or torches. In its course all light is extinguished and new lightened. House and court are cleaned with smoke. Christian Church has taken it as Christmas and the birth of Jesus , which was in reality in spring , put here.

 

The next holyday is Imbolc , the feast of purification and fertility in the time around the beginning of the month of February. It is the holyday between the rebirth of the light and the manifestation of life. The days get longer, one can go without candle light. “Imbolc” means “in the womb”. The new life is still in the bowels of the earth but begins to show itself.

 

In this time began in the old cultures , as still now in the Chinese, the new year. In the old Atlantean influenced cultures of Mesopotamia, as in Babylon and Assyria and Egypt it was celebrated as the beginning of the new year and biggest festivity in the course of the year and was joined with extensive cults of fertility. This holyday was accepted from the Christian church as Candlemas . With respect only to the moral acceptable return of the light, not the fertility cults. These found its rebirth in the modern “carnival” at the same time.

 

It follows in the round of the holydays the equality of day and night of spring. Also this day is documented in stone settings of Atlantean times. At the Celts it is the feast of the birds. One goes out and looks for migratory birds. Are they seen ,one has a party and eats with relish. Its symbols are hares, swallows and eggs, which are now connected with Easter . It is in Atlantean times the special day of Ostara or Aschera or Astarte, as she is called in the East, the goddess of love and fertility. It is the holyday of the rebirth of nature from the deadly death of winter. Water scooped at Easter has curing and strengthening effects.

 

It follows a holyday, which was not taken by Christian church but in contrary was damned because of the in it practised unrestraint behaviour. It is the feast  Beltane”, that was celebrated in the night to the first of May and is still today, apart from ecclesiastical area, often celebrated as “Dance into May.”At the Celts it is the feast of fire and flowers.

In Atlantean times it was the first big holyday of May, when all people arrived “at the stones” and ceremonial rites of sacrifice were celebrated by the priests . Afterwards followed a common big meal and a festival of love, where one was dancing naked or half naked around the fire. Beltane is the transition from spring to summer and means something like “shining fire” or “fire of Bel”. It is the feast of purification (fire) and fertility, the time of strength and maturity. Bel or Belenos is the Celtic God of the light, but in his origin he is the Canaanitic Baal, the”Sir”, who became in the nature orientated world of the Celts the God of the Sun. From Christian church it was degraded to “Walpurgis night” and declared , that in this night the” witches and the devils” with which were meant the fans of the old believe, were dancing together.

 

The now following solstice of summer has in the Nordic countries much taken from Beltane. The customs of fire and love, to which nobody would abstain ,were put here in moderate form. Also at the Celts it was in respect of the course of sun a feast of the fire. Until now, wheels set in fire are rolled down the hills and torches are swung in circle as symbol of the sun. For “purification” couples are jumping together through the fire.

 

In the circle of the year follows the holyday of fertility and harvest, Lughnasad, which is celebrated after the first of August. It is the first of the thanks giving feasts for a good harvest and vowed to the divine child “Mabon” which goes down to the underworld to get rebirth . Here is found in the Celtic still the Atlantean or Canaanitic tradition, as it is written in the myths of Ugarit. These myths and meanings were sinister to the Christian church and they made from the Celtic harvest holyday Lughnasad a day of misfortune, at which Lucifer was thrown into hell.

 

As Beltane, was this holyday because of disagree with Christian faith condemned and fought. Because people had a requirement for a holyday at this time, put the Catholic Christian Church to the fifteenth of August  the holyday of “Ascension of Maria”. The descent into the under earth lying world of death became ascent into heaven. Now was Jesus, as only on Earth working Christian God, already gone to heaven at Whitsun. So rested only, giving divine qualities to the mother of God and let her go to heaven at this day.

 

As one can see, priests of all times found a way out of a seeming dilemma, in which they respected even the old tradition. This behaviour and the with that joined

bending of religion after request, was although a horror for Protestant purists, who never established such a holyday. The farmers had to see, how they put their customs to harvest feasts with not embarrassing worldly context.

 

An interesting speciality of Celtic tradition was the swear “We will keep word , except the heaven collapses and shatters us, the earth opens and devours us or the sea goes over its borders and overwhelms us”. At a question of Alexander the Great ,what feared the Celts, they answered seriously: “ We only fear that heaven falls on our heads”, what rose in Alexander the opinion, that the Celts had a very high view of themselves. But  in both sentences is only expressed the memory at two “ends of the world” which were good remembered at the Celts because of their already mentioned good oral tradition of history. These catastrophes had made all vows and rules obsolete. The Greek without good tradition and also the Romans had no idea of this and thought such sentences as extreme arrogance.

 

With the introduction of Christianity disappeared the prohibition of writing of texts and so is a big part of the knowledge in the 3. and 4. century in written form still existent. But these texts, like older writings in the Ogham script, were burned as “heathen knowledge “ by overeager Christians when they found it. Even the famous Irish bishop Patrick shall have burned in the 9. century with missionary zeal 180 books with druidic knowledge. Nevertheless survived many and was edited in collections again and again, so in the “Leabhar Buidhe Lecain”, “The yellow book of Lecon “ that was put together around 1400.

 

After the introduction of Christianity in Ireland tried the former Druids, who now were called philosopher, to let flow their traditional ideas into the lessons of the church.

They found themselves in agreement with the theories of the Greek philosopher Pythagoras, who had these, like the after him named theorem of mathematic , taken from the Atlanteans in Persia and developed further. To that exists the report of the Greek historian Strabo, who tells, that a Druid named Abaris made a journey to Pythagoras at Athens , to dispute with him, and has made an excellent impression. After the original source was Abaris no Celt but a “Hyperborean” belonging to  legendary people, living in the North, where are dominating ice and snow. To that is to say, that the Greek, in contrary to the Roman, were always bad informed about their northern and western neighbours.

 

Certain guaranteed is although the quarrel, which had the Celtic church philosopher Pelagius Brito (around 354 to 420) with the authorities of the Roman church. He travelled around 380 to Rome and was horrified about the loose moral of the Christians there. In public he made responsible for that the lesson of Predestination and the doctrine , that man since the “Fall” is stained with the original sin ,which both were supported by the than living church teacher Augustinus in publications.

 

Pelagius in contrary supported the Druidic opinion, that man can gain the welfare by his own doing and rejected strictly the predestination. By this he had himself created in Augustinus a bitter enemy. Augustinus tried to accuse Pelagius for heresy and persecuted him in the council of Jerusalem in June 415 and in the synod of Diospolis, in which participated fourteen bishops, without gaining a condemnation of the opinions of Pelagius, which this had supported in further publications ” about the free will”.

 

Disappointed, Augustinus turned to the bishops of Carthage and Milevius, who went to see the pope of that time, Innozenz I.. Innozenz felt flattered , that African bishops , who otherwise did not ask for his opinion, made him to judge. As requested ,he convicted Pelagius. But his successor Zosimus cancelled the conviction, after he had gained more information about the lessons of Pelagius. Augustinus than turned in a fury to the Roman Emperor Honorius (395 – 423) and persuaded him to confiscate all property of Pelagius . Zosimus saw himself in danger and spoke now also against Pelagius.

 

The quarrel in the Church went to and fro for a long time. The Church of the East empire took over the condemnation of the “Pelagianism” only in 431. In the Celtic church it survived still for a long time and was therefore again explicit condemned in the second council of Orange. Eriguena “ the in Ireland born” attacked again in 850 the predestination of Augustinus  and was for it condemned  in two synods in 855 and 859. In spite of that, he published further and is today seen as the most important philosopher between Augustinus and Thomas of Aquin.

 

So the attempt of getting influence to the basics of Christianity by the Celtic Druids was not always successful. More success had the Celts in keeping their system of rights , which came in its origin from Atlantean times and was very different from the Roman right. The Irish right is so the oldest completely conserved

“Codex of Right” of Europe. After the Irish myth issued the Irish High King for consolidation of his rule in the year 714 B.C. ( that is before the immigration of the returning tribes) laws and designed a system of rights. He founded the “Feis Temhrach” the feast of Tara, that happened every three years , on which were discussed and reversed laws. If this is right, or only a myth , must not be discussed, for the feast existed still in historic times and fulfilled its task.

 

Probably the most famous of these conferences for right happened at 697 A.C. On it issued Adamnan, the abbot of Iona the “law of the innocents” which forbid to do in the times of war something to old men, women, children and “men, belonging to the clergy”, that means everybody , who was no warrior. This was far ahead of its time and in some way a forerunner of the “Convention of Geneva” ,which was only decided at the end of the nineteenth century. This law was binding in Ireland and the kingdom of the Picts and Scots and at its resolution were witnesses 51 kings and chiefs and 40 deputies of the church.

 

The carrying out of the laws  was at first given to the ”fili”, the poets, a branch of the Druids. At the occasion of a quarrel under the “fili”, became evident, that these  argued so pompously, that nobody, even not the king, understood them. Therefore it was decided, to give the matters of right from the “fili” to special judges and that the professions of right should be open to all, who brought with them the necessary preconditions.

 

With that was created a new class of judges, who were called “Brehon”. The Brehon laws should serve” to make good the injustice for the people and to protect the weak and poor “. The judges should quote at their sentence a “fasach”, a precedent or a maxim of right. Everybody ,who did not recognize a decision was outlawed and “should not be paid either by God nor by hand of men”. This outlawing or expel from society was corresponding to old Atlantean tradition and was a very hard punishment, for a life without community was practically not possible in this time. The Outlaw was forced to emigrate to find elsewhere a new community, which accepted him.

 

In the fifth century, when Christian ideas was added to Roman right , must be revised also the Brehon rights. The revision was made by nine prominent people from who were three Christians. The new right was codified in the “Senchus Mor” . It was called Cain Law and was binding for the whole country. Later on followed in the “Book of Acail “ the Irish criminal law. The language of these books was archaic and showed, how old the Brehon laws were. Both works of right survived in the “Leabhar nah Vidre”, the book of the “Dark Coloured Cow” of the 11. and 12. century. They were, whenever adapted again and again ,used till the seventh century when under Cromwell all Irish was suppressed and replaced by English.

 

Like the system of right had the Irish tradition of history an independent form, which reached back to Atlantean times. So reports Timagenes, who lived in the first century A.C . in Alexandria, that the Druids carried on the keeping of history. From the exact memory of the conquest of Rome was already spoken. The Roman Celtic author Livius (59 B.C. until 25 A.C) and Cornelius Nepos (around 100 until 5 B.C.) came probably from the class of Druids. The old Irish form of tradition of history consisted in a mix of prose and verse for the dialogues .The verses were learned by heart and the prose was added by the narrator as joining text in general sense.

The skeleton of verses caused, that the narrator could not deviate too much from the story, The free text gave the possibility ,to add own and fitting to the moment thoughts, and make by this the story more interesting for the listeners. Also from the Veden of India and the Ilias and Odyssee of Homer in Greece is known this form of tradition of history.

 

The historian called “ollamh” must possess after the Senchus Mor a special formation in Chronology , Synchronism, Archaeology and Genealogy. He has to know by heart at least 350 historical reports and love stories and recite them instantly on demand. Further he had to know exactly all privileges and rights of the High King and all little kings. If he does not fulfil these preconditions, he was not allowed as reporter and was not legitimated to sell his works.

 

The name of the male historian was now ”Seanchai” . This means also in today Irish :” Keeper and narrator of History”, Every chief had a Seanchai for the keeping of the history of his lineage. Since Christian times this happened also in written form and was done until the 17. century, when the English did away with the Irish customs and destroyed most of the writings. In this time was also shattered the indigene intelligence or driven into exile. Representatives of the last generation of historians were Dubhaltach Mac Firbisigh (1585-1670) and Seathrun Ceitinn (around 1570 until around 1649) who both found their death through the soldiers of Cromwell .

 

Ceitinn describes on the basis of a much older source the tasks of the Seanchai also as that of a war reporter. Every captain had a standard with his own sign (an Atlantean custom, which becomes clear in the finds of Lurestan and found itself again in the banners of regiments of the later European armies) so that the Seanchai, whose duty was, to assist the chiefs, when they rushed into the battle, could recognize every unit. The Seanchai had to notice the performance of the fighters, to give later a report of their “big contributions” in the battle.

 

Similar is also known from the Atlantean tradition in the “Vedic -Time “(1000-500 B.C.) of India. There was a class of poets of the court (sutas) who were also charioteer of the fighter and his friend and praised the actions of the fighter after the battle. (Today one would call them perhaps “manager” of the fighter). In the Rigveda they are called ” marasani “ “praise of the fighter”. In the Irish legends are corresponding Cuchulain and Loeg Mac Riangabra to this sight.

 

When in 1932 in the Academie francaise was given a report with the title” The courtly poetry of Ireland and Wales” was sitting Sylvain Levi, one of the greatest experts of Sanskrit, in the audience. He was delighted so much from the explanations, that he wrote a letter to the reporter Joseph Vendryes, in what he said, the Celtic history is” nearly a chapter from the history of India under other name”. A beating evidence for the homogeneity of Atlantean tradition at two parts of earth so much distant and with that a proof , that the Atlanteans were representatives of a high culture and not a big crowd of barbarians , as which are parts of them sometimes still regarded.

 

A similar phenomenon is existent in the Irish music. Classical authors report, that the Celts possessed lyras .drums, pipes and other instruments. At ceramic is reproduced a lyra . A good conserved trumpet was found in the county of Armagh in Ireland. After Greek and Roman authors vocal music and dancing was very popular. Dancing figures are found on ceramic and bronze reproductions.

The first notes from Ireland come from the twelfth century. Until than many had changed under Christian influence. One has to go back to the music of folk to have an impression of the beginnings. Music scientists believe , to find in the Scan-nos-form of singing, which is conserved especially in Conamara ,similarity to Indian music. This concerns especially the ornamentation of singing.

 

The Irish composer Sean O Riada ( 1931-1971) began after his studies of serial music in Paris to collect this music and he succeeded in opening a living cultural tradition, which was until than completely unknown in Europe. The Greek composer Christos Pittas, who knew similar music from the former Atlantean settling room in Thrakia ( West Turkey) ,said to that in 1971, that the development of an own music with distinctive individuality and deepness is only owned by great cultures ,to which in this case is to be told also the Celtic-(Atlantean).

 

Like the Irish system of rights, was also highly developed the Irish medicine system and was nearly equal to that known from India. As known also from middle Europe of the time of bronze there existed also in Ireland the trepanation , that is the operation of the skull, after in battle arose injury of the head. The knowledge of medicinal herb had a high degree and it should be known 365 medicinal herbs. Surgery made transplantations for example of an eye and replaced hands, lost in battle, by prosthesis from silver or by transplantation . The first Irish hospital is said after oral tradition to the queen Macha Mong Ruadh , who died in 377 B.C. There are here similar dates for the first hospitals as known from India. In the beginning of Christian time, they were found all around the country. They were partly already specialized for  certain disease (e. g. leprosy). In the 8. and 9. century the Irish medicine schools had great reputation in Europe. When was codified the system of rights, there was a high-quality, progressive, medicine system, that based on the traditional knowledge of the Druids.

 

In the Brehon system of rights was guaranteed nursing to all those in need, to it belonged beside the nursing also financial help and nourishing food. If the illness was caused through action of an other person , this had to pay the costs, This was also valid for employers, who were supposed to greed for profit. The medical practitioner had full responsibility for the treatment of a patient and had to give compensation in the case of false treatment. Every doctor had the duty to train four students of medicine, what made possible the intern control of the knowledge of the doctors. The responsible clan had to take care that every doctor had enough time and opportunity for further education. There existed real families of doctors in which the profession was hereditary and that in books written down knowledge was passed from father to son. Each region must have a hospital ,to which existed exact instructions about position and construction .It had for example to be positioned at a flowing water and must have four doors.

 

When the English in 17. century suppressed the Irish schools of medicine and destroyed the class of intellectuals, many doctors emigrated to the European continent and were there highly respected. At least not for this is conserved the Irish doctor literature from the time before the 18. century and waits for an editor. It is to expect that comes to light astonishing about the extensive knowledge of this old culture, which reaches without break until Atlantean times. Perhaps are in it contained methods and knowledge, which is new  for the medicine of today.

 

The special abilities of the Celtic Druids at the matters of predicts was already mentioned. Like the Etruscans, they used for that the flight of the birds or predicted from the innards of sacrifice animals. Also dream interpretation was practised . The content of truth is, as known, heavy to check up and good prophets made their predicts so, that they fitted for each end.

 

More useful and correct were in contrary the predicts and calculations of the Celtic astrologers. They possessed a calendar , which is dated for the first century B.C. but is possibly much older and is called Coligny calendar . It surpasses widely in exactness the Julian calendar , which was introduced in Rome at the time of Caesar. It consists in a cycle of five years in which the phases of the moon are matching the sun year. There are 62 month following each other of 29 or 30 nights, for at the Celts began the day with beginning of the night , that is with sunset. This explains probably also, why the places of assembly of the Atlanteans in Brittany are all directed to West, to sunset and is pointing out, that this calendar is probably much older. Just as the fact, that the seasons are playing a subordinated roll in this cycle of five years.

 

Probably was the settling region of the inventors of the calendar in an area, were the seasons had little effect to the climate and plaid a little roll for life. This could fit for example North Africa or the sunken Atlantis I in the middle of the Atlantic. In this case it is even possible that for reason of the not yet moved poles around 9000 B.C. there were no distinct seasons and the course of the sun was only shown in the change of the constellation of the stars. This would explain the strong interest of the priests of all old cultures at astronomy, for only with its help were distinctible higher time cycles as the sun year.

 

An age had 6 cycles of time and after the understanding of time of today 30 years. Also the Etruscans counted their time after ages (saeculi) One week consisted at the Celts of 9 nights and the month of 3 weeks. The resulting 27 nights-cycle corresponds to the 27 constellations of the moon cycle , which are in Indian mythology the 27 women of Soma the moon. The moon has obviously in the calendar technology of very old times a bigger roll as the sun. So were obviously, as already told, at old Sumer and Egypt the years not counted after the sun but after the moon cycle and are to divide with 13 to get to our counting of time.

 

Science of today is not conclusive, if the Celts got their astrological knowledge from the Babylonians. Probably scooped both from old Atlantean knowledge and developed two different branches. Finally lived the Celts in an area with the biggest and full of information stone settings of the Atlanteans, as Stonehenge, and the with them joined astrological knowledge was certainly conserved over a long time in oral and later written form by the Druids. So was not known until the 17.century the term “Zodiac”. It was used an own word “reithes grian” which means “sun wheel”. In Indian Sanskrit it is named “rasai chakra” , “wheel of constellations”. Also there is in old Irish a word for “Horoscope” :fuis-mea” which means “beginning” (fuismed). In Scottish  Gaelic is poetically called the Horoscope “ To set the foundation after the stars”.

 

It should not be entered further into the astronomical and astrological knowledge of the Celts and especially of the Irish, because this is nearly a subject of its own. It is in any case certain, that astronomical and astrological knowledge of high level was existent and Astrology was used until the 14.century for fixing of suitable moments for special actions. Since this time indigene Astrology mixed up with Babylonian one, imported by the Arabs ,so that the origin is not unambiguously to detect.

 

Also magical abilities were said in old tales to the Druids. So they could produce a fog, which withdraw towns, countryside or men from the look of the enemy. They could change their figure and transform men into animals. They could generate a Druidic sleep, which was similar a hypnotic state, in what men revealed the truth. They possessed also the “ Drink of Forgetting” under the effect of which men forgot their nearest friends and beloved. These capabilities do not impress us nowadays. Our modern technology and medicine is able to perform more, remarkable is anyhow , that also this field, with which one can produce much impression, was already mastered in high degree.

 

Summarizing one can say, that at the Celts and especially these, who lived undisturbed at the islands, astonishing much is conserved of the knowledge of the old Atlantean high culture and was handed down, in spite of all attempts of destruction , until our time.