Carthago und Etruria, last Countries of Atlantean Tradition

by Karl Juergen Hepke

The Etrusceans and Carthageans, these two nations coming from the same roots - Phoenicia and Atlantis - saw quickly, that their cooperation against the Greek was in common interest. The united fleets of Carthago and Etruria prevented in 536 B.C. the conquest of Corse by the Greek of Marseille. After that they formed a durable alliance in which the zones of interest were exactly defined. The Etrusceans were at that time at the high point of their power and had nearly joined together Italy from the Alps to Campania.

The Atlantean Empire

 

Blossoming in Middle Europe

 

Forms of Life

 

Religion in Atlantis

 

Customs and “Bad Habits”

The alliance between Etruria and Carthago was accomplished by economical and cultural relations. In Carthago this is proved by digging up of Etruscean statues, ceramic and several inscriptions in Thyrrhenean language. Especially a statue sarcophagus in Carthago finds its exact counterpart in Tarquinia. This points out to similarity in the believe of life after death and gives an additionally information about the common root in Atlantis.

Also Phoenicia, the third in the alliance of states with Atlantian tradition, defended itself against the all the time noticeable extension of the Greek. The big battle between the empire of Persia and the Hellenes is to large parts attribute to the machinations of Phoenicia, which wished to eliminate its dangerous growing competitor.

In Cyprus the Phoeniceans from their settlements in the East began to force back the Greek . In the whole region of the West, Carthago is at the front of the battle. At first in Sicilia, where it has to give up its branches of the East coast, but can extend the position in the West with help of the Elymes. Similar it happens in Lybia, where it cannot prevent the Greek Dorer from conquest of the Cyrenaica but finishes their advance to the West at the beneath edge of the gulf of Syrte.

Although the seafaring and commerce practising Phoeniceans as successors of Atlantis did not like warring from their nature, they had to build up a military power. They shew in that a personal effort and a hardness which amazed even the Greek. Because the Greek answered with same methods to the committed cruelties, arouse between both nations a murderous hate.

With the nearly simultaneous loss of the battle of Himera in Sicilia and Salamis in Greece in the year 481 B.C. got worse in dramatic manner the situation of the Phoenicean side. In Himera were lost , according to Greek information, for the Puneans several hundreds of ships, nearly 38 000 warriors, 2700 kg of gold and a reparation for the war of 2000 talents of silver.

In Salamis lost the Phoeniceans, who were the heart of the Persian fleet and had the reputation to be the best seamen of the Persean empire, 300 ships, which formed the right wing and were shattered at the rocky reefs of Psytalia. In 468 B.C. followed the catastrophe of Eurymedon in which Kimon of Athens captured the whole Phoenicean squadron of 80 ships. This opened for the Greek fleet the way to Cyprus , from where it could easily block the Phoenicean coast. Eight years later it got still worse, when the Greek, after an Egyptean revolt against the Perseans, gained control of the mouth of the Nile.

At the same time collapsed also the empire of the allied Etrusceans. Already since 510 B.C. they had lost control over Latium to Rome. In 474 destroyed Syrakus and Cumae the Thyrrhenean fleet. Campania was isolated and got soon prey of the Samnites.

Only one generation had been sufficient to destroy the big coalition, the head of which was Carthago. The real area of its rule was although not concerned. Still the Greek did not risk to penetrate into the region of Sardinia or the Iberian or West-African coast stripe. But the Lybians, who were defeated and had renounced tribute, took again their weapons and could only be calmed by recovery of the payment of tribute.

The quick insight in the danger and its hidden reasons and the instigation of wise defence reactions by the leading circles of Carthago, shew again their political astuteness and high intelligence. Not less considerable is the energy for the carrying out of plans and the hardness, with which were imposed and carried the necessary burdens.

As first consequence of the chain of defeats the existent powerful ruling dynasty of Magonids was removed and replaced by a tribunal of 100 judges elected from the senate. The most signifying persons of the dynasty were banished. The 100 were supported by committees of five members, coming from an additional selection. These committees got probably in the course of time a large part of the authorization of the general meeting.

The military leaders had to account to the tribunal after each war and several cases are known, in which military leaders fell in disgrace, because they were not successful in their actions. As further slashing measure can be regarded the evident introduction of import restrictions for Greek products. In the graves from the 5th and 6th century are nearly completely missing burial gifts of foreign origin.

The Carthagean government had obviously realized that the foreign trade took away from the country valuable raw materials and metals for import of objects of luxury without practical use. Therefore the trade relations were abruptly cut and only some Greek objects came into the country through the allied in Sicilia. Obviously wilful was also relinquished to mint own coins. So valuable metal was spared and additionally complicated the commerce with the Greek, for they insisted in payment in cash.

For ships brought not further cereals and oil, these had to be produced in the own country. The until than neglected hinterland became developed and the Lybians forced to pass over from extensive meadow economy to intensive farming of the soil. The ground for that had conquered the last representatives of the exiled dynasty of Magonids. It comprised probably the biggest part of Tunesia of today, at any rate were contained the peninsula of Cape Bon, the plains at the lower Medjerdal and the hilly country of Sahel, as the most fertile parts of the country.

There was lost no time to make them usable. Experienced Punic agronomists defined the methods of culture , best fitting to the soil. One of them, Magon, was even at Romans and Greeks respected as master of his stuff. His works were, as only Punic literature, translated into Latin.

Here was shown once more which knowledge the descendants of Atlantis had still to their disposal. It enabled them to make a "Garden Eden" out of a desolate stripe of steppe. This was later on, after the conquest by the Romans, the granary of Rome for a long time.

When at the beginning of the 4th century B.C. the warriors of Agathokles after their landing at Cape Bon marched towards Carthago, they were surprised of the fertility of the fields with grapes, olive trees and fruit trees. Really this region is especially suitable for culture of trees. In contrast to that the plains of the inner country are more suited to cultivation of cereals.

Hand in hand with the development of the hinterland were made efforts for the widening of the colonial empire. There is agreement in the dating of the most famous expedition to the 5th century. Himilkon got along the coasts of Iberia and Gallia (D) at least to the Cape Finisterre and visited the island Ouessant, which was important as place of transshipment of tin from Cornwall.

The most courageous and signifying expedition however was made in southern direction. Herodot tells that under the pharaoh Nechao (609/594) a Phoenicean expedition, supported by the pharaoh, sailed round the whole of Africa in three years. Here came the initiative not from Carthago, but one can suppose that the expedition was made with its approval and support.

In a further expedition, that took place nearly 450 B.C. the Carthageans tried to get back the former Atlantian branches of the West. Their faraway aim was, however, the coast of Senegal, which was known as country of gold. They tried also the way through the desert and it is supposed, that some reached it several times. The hunger for gold of Carthago is not explained with the desire for luxury and wealth, for it made efforts to collect capital to meet the inevitable coming quarrel with the Greek with good arms.

Already in the 6th century the Magonids had used extensively mercenaries in their campaign in Sicilia. Also the after them ruling oligarchy changed not this policy. They were carefully aware to treat the citizens of Phoenician origin most careful, because the Punic element of Carthago had no further increase by immigration. The subjugated, although courageous, but little civilized Lybians could only give aiding combat units, the loyalty of which was often not sure.

The heart of tactic of that time were the "Hoplites", heavy armed foot combat units, going in action in strict battle order. For this were primary suited professional soldiers. These could be recruited in good quality in the Mediterranean area, if one had money enough. So the efforts of Carthago strived for the creation of a treasure for war as big as possible, which could be used for payment of the army, for support of allied nations or for corruption of enemy´s politicians.

In 409 B.C. Carthago began to try to get free from the Greek embrace. The region of war was in the beginning again Sicilia, where Carthago had at first big success. Selinunt, Himera, and after them Agrigent and Gela were conquered and cruelly devastated. Than Dyonysos of Syrakus had also success. The chance of war changed than for 40 years. At the end Carthago kept only the country of the Elymes western of Selinunt.

In the following generation Syrakus was beating back. Agathokles of Syrakus landed 324 B.C. at Cape Bon, devastated the agricultural regions for supply of Carthago and surrounded the town for the first time. The action was a little bit too bold and ended in a catastrophe. Nevertheless Carthago was shocked. It felt abandoned by its gods and the priests imposed an enormous sacrifice to the nobility. The noble children, which were until than spared by sacrifices of children of poor people, which were buyed from their parents by the nobles, were sacrificed in an autodafé to Molk, the Kanaanitic god of death.

Such sacrifice of man was, although it belonged to the Atlantian and Kanaanitic tradition, practised only in the case of highest danger. Normally one was content with the sacrifice of animals. The resumption of man´s sacrifice in this time shows, that Carthago had the feeling of highest trouble and hoped to calm its gods by this slashing sacrifice and get help from them.

The Greek , who had once left the Atlantian tradition because of these cruel laws and were completely uncomprehending to them in that late time, regarded it as an act of barbarity and used it in propagandist manner to stir up opinion against the enemy.

The wall of intransigence and religious fanaticism, which had erected the oligarchy of Carthago against the Hellenism, crumbled gradually, also through these drastic measures, which had hit now also themselves. The military leaders began to fight against the oligarchy. There existed a plan to murder the whole senat on the occasion of a wedding. Also the exploited African ministates became increasingly restless and were waiting for an opportunity to strike against Carthago.

Nevertheless Carthago was not weakened in economic sight by this nearly hundred years lasting war. By the use of an army of mercenaries and the place of battle in Sicilia, the war was at first an economic problem. For this Carthago was prepared and had the possibility by exploitation of the hinterland and proceeds from the branches in the West to pay the costs of war. Besides, the war was itself lucrative. The plundering of all big towns of Sicilia, except Syrakus, had piled up in the treasure houses of Carthago the wealth, which found Scipio there one and a half century later.

But there were bad news from the East of the Mediterranean. The last bastion of the Atlantians in the East, the mother town of Carthago, Tyrus, had been conquered and destroyed by Alexander the Great in the year 332 B.C. after a siege of seven months. Alexander had announced, that he had the intention to attack Carthago in the next time. That prevented his early death, but the new, coming power of the Mediterranean, Rome, regarded the now becoming Hellenistic Carthago as serious competitor and worth prey, destroyed it after the three Punic wars and integrated its sphere of influence in the year 146 B.C. into the Roman Empire.

Also the Etrusceans were now attacked again by Rome. Volterra surrendered in 79 B.C. and after the "bellum perusinum" in 40 B.C. Etruria was declared by Rome to be the VII region of the empire. Some years before, in 54 B.C., the priests of Etruria had announced the end of the 10th saeculum and with that the end of the Etruscean state.
With that, also the last European country with Atlantian culture had fallen prey to the new states forcing to the front of power.

In the following time the new states made big efforts to remove the traces of the old empire of the Atlantians. For Greek and Roman their leftovers were obviously something odious and were therefore, where ever they were found, disposed by hard work and perseverance or taken out of circulation. Also the knowledge of the sea routes of the Atlantians got lost, because they themselves, as their successors the Carthageans and Phoeniceans, had done everything to keep this knowledge secret.

Nevertheless there must be found something by intensive search after the knowledge of the Atlantians in the archives of the Roman empire and the ruins of the destroyed towns of Tharsis, Tyrus and Carthago and that of Etruria. So, for example, the books carried off by the Romans in Carthago and Etruria, except an only work concerning farming, were never translated. But there is still the possibility that they are hidden in Roman archives. Also the at Crete found writings on tiles in "Linear A". preserved by fire, were not deciphered until now.

Because the Atlantian empire and its religion and culture, as the considerable technical, political and economic knowledge is forming the foundation of the culture of the West of today, it should be a task for its states to search for these origins.
Possibly we can replace the "ex oriente lux", "from East came the Light", which forms the historical thinking of the West until now, by "ex occidente lux", "the light came from the West."

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Read to this in English: The History of Atlantis, the forgotten Origin of our Culture          By Karl Juergen Hepke

Or as a book in German language:

 

DIE GESCHICHTE VON ATLANTIS, der vergessene Ursprung unserer Kultur
by Karl Juergen Hepke
TRIGA-DER VERLAG, D 63584 Gruendau-Rothenbergen, Germany, 2nd Edition, Hardcover, 268 Pages, EUR 22,00, ISBN 978-3-89774-539-1 ,

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