Etruria, that is the country in the North of Italy, the heartland of which is today called Toscana . Rome is situated at its southern end and belonged at first not to the settling region of the Tyrhenians or Tusker, how the new settlers , who began around 700 B.C. to settle down here, were called by their contemporaries the Greek and Carthageans . The country, that they had chosen , was little inviting at that time and therefore poorly settled. The volcanic structure of the soil in the southern part supported wetness of soil and bogs and so had the settlers until than , who are called after the discovery place of their culture “Villanova people”, around 1200 B.C. only settled down at favoured places. This places were favoured, beside by relative convenient soil, by deposits of ore. This provided the raw material for the production of bronze.
archaeological finds proved the Villanova people an astonishing skill in the
workmanship of this material, what is pointing out, that they have brought with
them this knowledge at their immigration. By this it
is nearly sure, that they came to
But this was only
a prelude, which possibly was sufficient, to bring the information of the here
richly available ore of iron and copper to the related tribes, which had
migrated as far as the Near Orient. When than since 700 B.C. the life in the
areas of the Near East , bothered by Assyrians and Persians , became more and
more difficult and dangerous, a part of the population started to go by ship to
North Italy . From where the boats came is not exactly known. After Herodotus
they came from
The men who
entered the boats, to go West ,were to the biggest
part the descendents of the Atlantean people, who
penetrated as “Sea People” 400 years ago into Near
monuments, which the new settlers constructed in the new won area, show without
doubt their affiliation to the Atlantean culture. The
first graves were hills of earth above a base, tall as a man, from tuff stone
.They have in the middle a burial chamber from rock stone with a roof, formed
as a gable. Similar grave hills are known from the time of bronze in northern
In gigantic towns of dead the so called “necropoles”, which were often larger and more extended as the towns itself, buried the Etruceans their dead in richly decorated halls ,hewn into the often weak rock. The burial objects are showing social position and wealth of the buried and were therefore since early times and especially in the 19th century the aim of grave robbers, who have fortunately until now not succeeded in finding all graves. At the place of them followed since the beginning of the 20th century professional archaeologists, who at least took care, that their finds came into “public” hands, if one can call so museums , which keep their treasures in inaccessible cellars, if they got not ”lost”. Because of interest of private collectors, are the from the graves robbed treasures now spread all over the world and are reaching best prices at auctions, if they come there.
But some stays
open to public and shows the high level of the Etruscian
culture. So two Italians succeeded 1836 in finding in an already several times
excavated grave hill , a completely intact burial.
When they entered into the grave chamber from strong rock ,
covered with a gable, they thought that their eyes were cheating them. On a
catafalque made of stone was resting covered with jewellery the skeleton of a women. Around were standing valuable objects and gave
the impression of a splendour, only known from reports
from the Orient. After the valuable jewellery and the abundance and splendour
of the offerings must it be the burial of a princess or high priest. Separated
from her, were buried in the front part of the grave, two additional dead. In a
niche stoud an urn with the ash of a warrior,
surrounded from his weapons. In the corridor laid on a bed from bronze, the
bones of a second man. This finds are now presented in the Regolini-Galassi
Hall of the museum Gregoriano in the
The in the rooms of graves found burial objects consisted under others in a bed of bronze, big round shields from bronze with the portrayal of heads of panthers , kettles from bronze , deep dark shining dish - called Bucchero - decorated with sinister animals. Besides this, of cups and drinking vessels from silver , thin walled, gold plated bowls from bronze, fire benches and smoke cars. Two vehicles, a burial car with four wheels and a biga with two wheels for feast days and war and a with bronze decorated throne are completing the equipment. For amusement and entertainment were added games with rotating discs and dices and for food big earthenware vessels with grain, oil, honey and eggs. There was no lack of anything ,that needs the household and supply of a high positioned personality and even the name could be discovered at eleven drinking vessels. She was named Larthi. The grave comes from the seventh century B.C. and shows, that the “Etruscians” even at their immigration brought with them a culture, which represented the highest level of metal working and production of ceramics, ever reached by Atlantean people.
Another grave of a
princess in the proximity of Tarquinia, the oldest
town of the Etruscians, which was before incompletely
robbed, offered in 1895 further objects of art. Under it a chain with ninety
one dainty figures of gods from green Egyptian faience and a high balsam can
from the same material. On a picture strip is the ruler of the
wilderness of the untouched landscape formed the immigrants a culture land with
fields, plantations and gardens. At clearings and drained before boggy soil,
was ploughed and cultivated grain. In the ore rich valleys of the “Colline metallifere”, the “Toifa” mountains and the island
A chain of
fortified towns marked the landscape. At the coast 30 Km north of the mouth of
Three gates are
leading into the inner of the town, three temples belong to them. Much stronger
then the Celts the Etruscians cultivated an
exceptional mystic of numbers, in which the number three played an extruding
roll. The Tuscian temple appears heavy and stocky and
is nearly square in its ground plan. Often it has three cult niches and is
vowed to the divine trinity Tinia, the upper god,
from whom comes Jupiter at the Romans, Mnvra, from
who comes Minerva and Uni, from who make the Romans Juno . At the front side the temple has a protruding roof
with a flat gable. The roof is supported by a number of Doric pillars with
base. A similar temple is portrayed in a relief in Khorsabad
at the Euphrat and shows a temple in Urartru, an Atlantean state in
The temples are
standing on a high rostrum and a staircase is leading up from the front. Obviously an artistically reproduction of the temple mountain of
the origin Atlantean town Tharsis
with its procession road, which also gave inspiration to the “Zikkurates” of
Life sized ,coloured statues of gods and earthen burned reliefs are decorating the gable triangle, the first and
the edge of the roof . Friezes with mythical creatures, struggling fighters and
dancing and embracing nymphs and silens are
decorating the walls. Bright are the colours, red ,white,
blue, brown, and purple, are meeting strongly and increase the ecstatic
impression of the represented. Colour painted and decorated with terrakotta plates are also the big houses, public houses
and seats of the Mighty. The form of the house is the Atrium house, which later
of the Town States corresponds to the old Atlantean
stile. At the top is the king. Nobility families are the leading class, from
which come warriors and priests. The monarchy is hereditary in the beginning,
later on, when the nobility got stronger and stronger ,
the king is elected by the nobility from it for a year. A considerable weakening
of his position, which
in the later warring with
As symbol of power
about life and death were carried the „fasces“, a bundle of switches in which
stuck a doubles axe , in front of the king or put up at his side. The doubles
axe is an ancient Atlantean symbol of power which one
can find since the first time of
The clothing of
the Etruscians is due to the Atlantean
tradition, as this is also known from
In the towns is
developing a varied commercial economy for the production of all sort of goods.
The ceramic industry has an until than in
Metal production and working reached a high perfection. About the quality of jewellery was already spoken. Beside this were produced containers from bronze, casted mirrors, engraved containers and boxes, objects of daily use and naturally weapons of all kind.
The good iron, that could produce the Etruscians, equipped as swords, daggers, spear, arrow and lance points soon all people of Italy and over that the whole area of the Mediterranean and gave the base of arms for the wars, which soon Rome brought over the people of the Mediterranean and the Northern Europe.
As at Atlantean people of all times, music plaid a big roll also
at the Etruscians in life ,
at ceremonies and in war. The trumpet, with its clear sound
,was invented by them and used as signal instrument in war. The horn
trumpet used later on
But not only at
the sector of culture the country blossomed. The Etruscians were , basing on in
millenniums collected agronomic and water engineering experience of the Atlanteans, master in cultivating of all sort of soil. They
know canal and tunnel construction and had already in Urartru ,
To that an example: Near the place ”Ansedonia” of today lays at feet of the steep falling rock the “Tagliatta Etruska”. It is a canal for drainage of the near situated Burano lake, and hinders it becoming a bog. It goes as far as the rock, penetrates it by a tunnel and flows into the sea. This is nothing extraordinary. The shrewdness of the Etruscians was, to hinder a blockage by sand of the outlet , to cut a gigantic barrier out off the rock, through which were driven two additional tunnels. By this order was achieved, that current and countercurrent acted alternately and the canal was never blocked by sand. It fulfils until now since 2200 years its purpose.
The Etruscian agronomic art made it possible, that also from
agronomical difficult land could be won rich yield, which not only could
provide the own numerous people, but enabled also exports in neighbouring
areas. Wide regions at rivers, in valleys and plains, mainly in neighbourhood
of the sea the so called ”Maremmen”
, were drained at this time. Regions in the hinterland and at mountain slopes
became irrigated artificially. A complicated installed system of canals, in
which was collected the surplus water, passed through
On the barren soil of the hills in the Maremmen were used the special methods of “dry-farming” of American dry culturing . than already used by the Etruscians. Here you can find, mostly decayed, rests of installations ,with which made the Etruscians the most of the irregular falling precipitations. The in winter falling rain was collected in artificial lakes, which were made waterproof with clay and a little bit added chalk, and lead by in different height installed pipes from burned clay to the vineyards.
One gathered with that marvellous yields. In the Chiana
valley ,which was crossed by countless underground and
open watercourses, was cultivated the sort of wheat “Spelt”. Besides that men
cultivated millet, rye, oats and , as provider for the
linen of the textile production, flax. The cultivation of wine, which is famous
until now for the Toscana, was introduced by the Etruscians
and its product was a high estimated article of export, which was provided as
far as the Celtic regions north of the
breeding had a blossoming . Horses, similar to the
Arabian whole blood, were bread as ride horses and draught horses for the two
wheeled biga. With them were made the, at all Atlantean people beloved, car racings. The high grown cattle
of the Toscana, with its wide spreading horns, shall be been imported than by
the Etruscians from
The towns had profit, as the country , from the water engineering of the Etruscians. Each town had canalisation and wells, which were provided by burned earthen pipe systems with fresh water from rivers or sources. Archaeologists found under many of the old towns, not completely mans height, point arched small walkways, which are crossing and completing and than and now connected by shafts with lower laying similar systems. An even now used technology of construction of canalization and draining, which for insiders is also usable as a system of secret walks.
Differences of height solved the Etruscians by underground pipe systems, with pressure units and siphon, to bring water from large distance to the towns. They surpassed with that the water engineering of the Romans , with their spectacular, but in comparison technically primitive, economically incredible expensive , often disfiguring the landscape, and sensitive for destruction water installations. These water installations must be seen as step backwards of civilization, as many other of Roman “achievements.”
The metal industry
The upper chamber was filled with a mix from charcoal and ore, possibly under addition of for the reduction process useful material as limestone, and in the bottom chamber lightened a fire from wood. Through the holes of the floor, the fire entered to the charcoal ore mix and set it into fire. With the developing heat began the process of reduction and melting. The coming out liquid metal flew, through the holes in the floor, into the bottom chamber, and through the door into the open air. By steady refill of charcoal ore mix from above, was a continuous process of metal gaining possible, as in a modern blast furnace. The furnaces were so built, that the in the valley predominating wind strengthened the draught in it, and created so a kind of bellow work, which reinforced the temperature in the furnace. An overheating could be avoided by a reduction of the bottom door opening.
The wood for the
charcoal, needed in big quantity, was produced in an efficient wood culture in
a rhythm of twenty years. This is known by the examination of left pieces of charcoal ,which all come from trees, having a maximum age of
twenty years. So it is understandable, that astonishing quantities of ore could
be worked out. The hills of slack at the coast of
Sporty games and
car racing, beginning with religious ceremonies, played ,
as once in Atlantis , also in
If one compares all parallels with Platons story of Atlantis, one could think, that Platon has described Etruria, if one does not recognize, that at least 500 years of vouched history are laying between these two states. But it is easy to see, that the Etruscians in many aspects followed the well known example of Atlantis and many characteristics, otherwise hardly to understand , are only understandable with that. That concerns before all other, the from them predicted limited existence of their state.
The Etruscian games
are depicted on frescos in the grave chambers of Tarquinia
and Chiusi and on burial vases from Volterra. All Olympic sorts of sports are shown ,and, beside that, competitions of riders, flat and
car racing. Portrayals, rich in details ,are showing
competitors, heralds, referees and spectators, between whom are , contrary to
A further Atlantean speciality of feasts should go from the Etruscians to the Romans, and with
them into the written history. It is the Atlantean
procession, which becomes in
Than came the
triumphing general on a splendour car with two wheels, drawn by four white
horses. A chorus of kitharists and titirists with body belts and golden bandages around the
head strode beside the car. Under them was one man in long purple clothing,
festooned with golden arm rings and neck jewellery, who makes ridiculous
behaviours to the scorn of the enemy , and should
perhaps represent the defeated ruler or general. It follows the long procession
of elected warriors of the campaign – in
plaid a big roll in life of the Etruscians. Also in that, they were right descendents of the Atlanteans. There is in their life no sign of wear and tear
of religiosity, as it is known from other cultures of decline. But perhaps it
was, for this time, already too much religiosity ,which
hindered the life and free development of forces of the individual. The
The Atlantean archaic states demanded ones total integration
into the life of state
, which was far going decided by religion. In
before we will talk about the „Phenomenon
Without any doubt, was the Etruscian religion the base for the Italian and later Roman religion. But the complicated cults and rites, which were secret knowledge of the Etruscian priests, were nearly completely lost. Pointing out of the flight of the birds, the look at the liver, the interpretation of lightning, the reading of the Sybellinian Books could even in the prime of Rome only be done by Etruscian priests, and was not further possible when nobody was left of them.
The Etruscian religion is, after the opinion of the responsible
scientists, as Jewry, Christianity and Islam a “Religion of the Book “. This
“book” consists, as the Holy Bible, out of a collection of books, which called
the Romans “Etrusca Disciplina”.
The Etruscian name is not known. The in the books
contained lessons shall come from the immortal gods. It was probably a
collection of the originally oral handed and later on written down old lessons
from Atlantean times. After an
other source they shall be given from Tages to
Tarchon. Tarchon is a
mythical character, who at the founding of the oldest Etruscian
town Tarquinia, at the ritual ploughing of the
founding furrow, rose from the furrow and announced the lessons. This is surely
a from priests created myth, to increase the value of the town founding
history. The original books, the “libri tagetici“ were in course of the
further immigration replenished by others. It was surely further knowledge ,which new immigrating priests brought with them,
and was accepted for completeness. In it was the “Lesson of Lightning“, which
was ascribed to the nymph Vegoia from Clusium and was probably imported by the group of
immigrants, who settled in Clusium. As further creator of lessons is named Cacus.
From the „Etruscian Disciplin“ are only maintained fragments. It was, when Rome turned to
Christianity, consequently exterminated as superstition .But references to it
are often in Roman literature, and so is possible a reconstruction of the
framework, although there are missing many details. After
1.The books of the Haruspexes (libri haruspicini), Instructions for interpretation of the view of liver, of the flight of birds and other signs of nature.
2. The books of the lightning (libri fulguralis), which contained the interpretation of the lightning , in which the Etruscians distinguished twelve sorts.
3. The books of the rites (libri rituales) which contained the rites of feasts and sacrifices.
To this belonged the “libri acheruntici,” which probably contained the lessons of being after death, the “ostentaria” and the “libri fatales” the books of destiny.
Also to this belonged probably the Sybyllinic Books.
In the “libri fatales” was contained as most known prediction, that
the Etruscian state should exist ten ages (saeculi) and than dissolve. This “saeculi”
had not the
same length, but the end of a saeculum was fixed by
the highest priest of
The world of gods of the Etrscians is known mainly from archaeological finds. As very important proved the back side of mirrors of bronze on which were shown mythological scenes and the portrayed gods were even called with their name.
Da diese Spiegel
wertvolle Objekte darstellten, entgingen sie der Vernichtung durch die Roemer und die nachfolgenden Voelker. So sind bekannt als
1. Tin, als Blitz- und Obergott, er entspricht bei den Roemern Zeus/Jupiter. Himmelsgott
2. Turan, Muttergoettin, entspricht Aphrodite, Venus. Himmelsgoettin
4. Velchans, Natur und Geburtsgottheit
5. Sethlans, entspricht Hephaistos, Volcanus. Natur- und Zivilisationsgott (Kulturbringer)
7. Fufluns, entspricht Dionysos. Naturgott
8. Laran. Kriegsgott
9. Lethans. Himmelsgott
10. Cath oder Cautha. Himmelsgott
11. Turms, entspricht Hermes, Merkur. Himmelsgott
12. Nethuns, entspricht Poseidon, Neptunus. Wassergott
13. Maris, Sohn der Menrva. Himmelsgott
14. Menrva, enspricht Minerva, spaeter Uni, Astarte. Himmelsgoettin
15.Satre, entspricht Saturn. Erd- und Fruchtbarkeitsgott
16. Veive. Himmelsgoettin
17. Calu. Unterweltsgott
18. Thanr. Unterweltsgoettin
19. Charun. Unterweltsdaemon
20. Tuchulcha. Unterweltsdaemon
21. Vanth. Unterweltsdaemonin
22. Culan. Unterweltsdaemonin
23. Tages. Heilbringer (Kulturbringer)
24. Hercle enspricht Herakles, Herkules (Melkart phoenizisch). Heilbringer
dazu kommen aus urspruenglich italischer Quelle
1. Uni, entsprechend Hera, Juno, spaeter Astarte. Himmelsgoettin
2. Ani, entsprechend Janus. Himmelsgott
For these mirrors were valuable objects, they escaped the destruction by the Romans and following people. So are known as Etruscian gods.
1.Tin, as god of lightning and upper god. He corresponds to Zeus, Jupiter at the Romans. God of heaven.
2.Turan, Mother god, corresponds to Aphrodite, Venus. Goddess of heaven.
4.Velchans, God of nature and birth
5.Sethlans, corresponds to Hephaistos, Volcanus. God of nature and civilization (bringer of culture)
7.Fufluns, corresponds to Dionysos. God of nature.
8.Laran. God of war.
9.Lethans. God of heaven.
10. Cath or Cautha. God of heaven.
11.Turms. corresponds to Hermes, Merkur. God of heaven.
12. Nethuns, corresponds to Poseidon, Neptunus, God of water
13.Maris, son of Menrva, God of heaven.
14.Menrva. corresponds to Minerva, later on Uni, Astarte. Goddess of heaven.
15. Satre. corresponds to Saturn. God of earth and fertility.
16. Veive. Goddess of heaven
17. Calu. God of underworld.
18. Thanr. Goddess of underworld.
19. Charun. Demon of underworld.
20. Tuchulca. Demon of underworld.
21. Vanth. Female demon.
22. Culan. Female demon.
23. Tages. Bringer of welfare and culture.
24. Hercle. Corresponds to Herakles, Herkules (Melkart in
to these come from originally Italian source
1. Uni. Corresponds to Hera, Juno, later on Astarte. Goddess of heaven.
2. Ani. Corresponds to Janus. God of heaven.
And from originally Greek influence
1.Ap(u)lu. Corresponds to Apollo. God of heaven.
2. Semla or Semele
3. Castur. Corresponds to Castor.
4. Pultuke. Corresponds to Pollux.
5. Aritini. Corresponds to Artemis.
In practical believe of people, which is supported by finds of sacrificial offering , are playing couples as Maris and Menvra and Hercle and Menvra a bigger roll, besides that a female goddess ( Turan, Artemis or Fortuna) and Fufluns, the Etruscian Dionysos.
This is only a selection , to it comes a row of servant gods as Genius, Leinth and Mean.
One can see, the heaven of gods was richly stocked, what is not at last attributable to the fact, that every immigrating tribe brought his gods under their name with them. Their specific qualities were differently interpreted and understood, what a standardisation even in Etruscian times made a heavy task, as far as there was a need for it.
Because the reader shall not be kept back by the complicated questions of the Etruscian religion, is recommended for interested ones the literature (22) which contains a detailed scientific information of all questions after the knowledge of the year 2000 A.C. by an excellent expert.(in German language)
Here shall only be
entered into the numerously indicated relationship of
The founding and the
After the centre
land, the Toscana, was settled and developed with the towns of the Etruscian “bundle of the twelve” began the expansion to
North, East and South. To North goes the expansion as far as