Etruria, Return of Culture to the West

 

 

Etruria, that is the country in the North of Italy, the heartland of which is today called Toscana . Rome is situated at its southern end and belonged at first not to the settling region of the Tyrhenians or Tusker, how the new settlers , who began around 700 B.C. to settle down here, were called by their contemporaries the Greek and Carthageans . The country, that they had chosen , was little inviting at that time and therefore poorly settled. The volcanic structure of the soil in the southern part  supported wetness of soil and bogs and so had the settlers until than , who are called after the discovery place of their culture “Villanova people”, around 1200 B.C. only settled down at favoured places. This places were favoured, beside by relative convenient soil, by deposits of ore. This provided the raw material for the production of bronze.

After the archaeological finds proved the Villanova people an astonishing skill in the workmanship of this material, what is pointing out, that they have brought with them this knowledge at their immigration. By this it is nearly sure, that they came to Italy from the origin Atlantean area, either from North over the Alps or from West over the sea.

But this was only a prelude, which possibly was sufficient, to bring the information of the here richly available ore of iron and copper to the related tribes, which had migrated as far as the Near Orient. When than since 700 B.C. the life in the areas of the Near East , bothered by Assyrians and Persians , became more and more difficult and dangerous, a part of the population started to go by ship to North Italy . From where the boats came is not exactly known. After Herodotus they came from Phrygia and Lydia, that means from western Turkey of today. Further possible places of origin are coast towns of southern Turkey, like Tarsus, and the towns at the Phoenician coast. At the same time was founded Carthage for similar reasons at the coast of North Africa by Tyrus. There was at that time a general emigration in direction West, which found expression in the later Roman stories of Dido and Aeneas.

The men who entered the boats, to go West ,were to the biggest part the descendents of the Atlantean people, who penetrated as “Sea People” 400 years ago into Near Asia. At that time they had to escape the bad climatic conditions and the by them caused famines of the cosmic catastrophe of 1250 B.C.. The climate had now, especially in the southern areas, got better and the abundant falls of rain, which many regions made to bog, had given way to a mixed climate with rain, sun and many thunderstorms

 

The burial monuments, which the new settlers constructed in the new won area, show without doubt their affiliation to the Atlantean culture. The first graves were hills of earth above a base, tall as a man, from tuff stone .They have in the middle a burial chamber from rock stone with a roof, formed as a gable. Similar grave hills are known from the time of bronze in northern Germany, where for the base were used sods of heath and for the burial chamber erratic stones. Sometimes later is than the rectangular burial chamber covered with a dome of protruding stones as in Spain in Antequera  and in Mycenes in the „Treasure House of Atreus“. Also were found graves with circles of stone slabs put vertically on to 70 m diameter , which had originally surrounded a grave hill ,. This construction remembers to graves in Britain. From these traditional orientated beginnings, developed the to one nation growing  groups of newcomers an own stile, which is unique in the world and forms the worthy end of the great grave cultures , with origin in the Atlantean culture.

 

In gigantic towns of dead the so called “necropoles”, which were often larger and more extended as the towns itself, buried the Etruceans their dead in richly decorated halls ,hewn into the often weak rock. The burial objects are showing social position and wealth of the buried and were therefore since early times and especially in the 19th century the aim of grave robbers, who have fortunately until now not succeeded in finding all graves. At the place of them followed since the beginning of the 20th century professional archaeologists, who at least took care, that their finds came into “public” hands, if one can call so museums , which keep their treasures in inaccessible cellars, if they got not ”lost”. Because of interest of private collectors, are the from the graves robbed treasures now spread all over the world and are reaching best prices at auctions, if they come there.

But some stays open to public and shows the high level of the Etruscian culture. So two Italians succeeded 1836 in finding in an already several times excavated grave hill , a completely intact burial. When they entered into the grave chamber from strong rock , covered with a gable, they thought that their eyes were cheating them. On a catafalque made of stone was resting covered with jewellery the skeleton of a women. Around were standing valuable objects and gave the impression of a splendour, only known from reports from the Orient. After the valuable jewellery and the abundance and splendour of the offerings must it be the burial of a princess or high priest. Separated from her, were buried in the front part of the grave, two additional dead. In a niche stoud an urn with the ash of a warrior, surrounded from his weapons. In the corridor laid on a bed from bronze, the bones of a second man. This finds are now presented in the Regolini-Galassi Hall of the museum Gregoriano in the Vatican, where they sleep nearly unnoticed , bad illuminated and insufficiently inscribed . Especially remarkable is a golden breast plate , a so called “Pectorale” covered with ornaments of plants and animals, which can be interpreted as a sign of highest dignity. Similar breast plates are decorating a winged sphinx in the Assyrian town Nimrud and the portrayal of the Assyrian king Assurnasipal II in his quality as a priest. Also in Israel belonged the breast plate - “chochen” in Hebrew-to the feast clothing of the High Priest. A further piece of splendour is a golden disc fibula, which presents a magnificent specimen of old gold workmanship. The here used technology of granulation of finest balls of gold and its welding on the surface beneath was thought for a long time as not more practicable and was feasible only in times of today.

 

The in the rooms of graves found burial objects consisted under others in a bed of bronze, big round shields from bronze with the portrayal of heads of panthers , kettles from bronze , deep dark shining dish - called Bucchero - decorated with sinister animals. Besides this, of cups and drinking vessels from silver , thin walled, gold plated bowls from bronze, fire benches and smoke cars. Two vehicles, a burial car with four wheels and a biga with two wheels for feast days and war and a with bronze decorated throne are completing the equipment. For amusement and entertainment were added games with rotating discs and dices and for food big earthenware vessels with grain, oil, honey and eggs. There was no lack of anything ,that needs the household and supply of a high positioned personality and even the name could be discovered at eleven drinking vessels. She was named Larthi. The grave comes from the seventh century B.C. and shows, that the “Etruscians” even at their immigration brought with them a culture, which represented the highest level of metal working and production of ceramics, ever reached by Atlantean people.

 

Another grave of a princess in the proximity of Tarquinia, the oldest town of the Etruscians, which was before incompletely robbed, offered in 1895 further objects of art. Under it a chain with ninety one dainty figures of gods from green Egyptian faience and a high balsam can from the same material. On a picture strip is the ruler of the Nile land portrayed in the circle of gods and an inscription contains the name of a pharaoh the Bok-en-ranf. This ruler, who were called by the Greek Bokchoris, reigned from 734 until 728 B.C.. He fell in a battle with the Aethiopians. One think, that not long after his death, the can, which was possibly a gift to her, was given the princess into her burial and the dating of the grave is with that around 700 B.C. At 1900 man was still dependent on dating after finds , for the dating with radiocarbon , thermoluminescence or dendrology was still unknown.

 

From the wilderness of the untouched landscape formed the immigrants a culture land with fields, plantations and gardens. At clearings and drained before boggy soil, was ploughed and cultivated grain. In the ore rich valleys of the “Colline metallifere”, the “Toifa” mountains and the island Elba were tunnels driven into earth and mined ore . Charcoal kiln smouldered and melting furnaces are busy in the valleys to win copper and much, much iron. The extraction and working  of iron was obviously the essential art, which imported the Etruscians from Asia Minor, the country of the iron working Hethitians, and which brought them wealth and later on their destruction.

A chain of fortified towns marked the landscape. At the coast 30 Km north of the mouth of the Tiber laid Caere. Cisra in Etruscian language, with its three harbours Alsium, Punicum and Pyrgi. 40 Km North followed Tarquinia, the oldest founding of a town. Farther North West followed Vulci, native place of the second Etruscian king of Rome, Servius Tullius. Above a lake with connection with the sea follows Vetluna and than, hidden between chains of hills, Rusellae, today Roselle. Opposite of Elba lays, on a hill at the sea, Pupluna, later Populonia. Farther, near to the coast ,follows Velathri, today Volterra, town of origin of the alabaster. In the inner country are joining: South West of the Trasimenian Lake, Chamars, Clusium at the Romans, today Chiusi. Then Volsinii with the Etruscian centre shrine at the Bolsena Lake and completely in the South ,  in the dangerous proximity of Rome, Veji. At the slope of the Appenin are joining the places Arretium, today Arezzo, Cortuna, Perusia and Orvieto. Twelve of the biggest towns are forming the Northern “Confederation of the Twelve” in which the holy number of twelve occurs. Newly installed roads are connecting towns and places. Procession roads lead in front of the towns to the Necropoles.

 

Three gates are leading into the inner of the town, three temples belong to them. Much stronger then the Celts the Etruscians cultivated an exceptional mystic of numbers, in which the number three played an extruding roll. The Tuscian temple appears heavy and stocky and is nearly square in its ground plan. Often it has three cult niches and is vowed to the divine trinity Tinia, the upper god, from whom comes Jupiter at the Romans, Mnvra, from who comes Minerva and Uni, from who make the Romans Juno . At the front side the temple has a protruding roof with a flat gable. The roof is supported by a number of Doric pillars with base. A similar temple is portrayed in a relief in Khorsabad at the Euphrat and shows a temple in Urartru, an Atlantean state in Armenia.

The temples are standing on a high rostrum and a staircase is leading up from the front. Obviously an artistically reproduction of the temple mountain of the origin Atlantean town Tharsis with its procession road, which also gave inspiration to the “Zikkurates” of Mesopotamia. The frontal impression is here important and not as at the Greek temple the total construction in all sights. A further indication for the originally position of the temple, outside of the town ,and its access in form of a procession road. The position of the temple in the town ,can be seen with that, only as a later compromise for reason of security. Rome should later on take again the old idea in the first Etruscian temple on the Capitol Mountain and the to it leading procession road, the “Via Sacra”.

 

Life sized ,coloured statues of gods and earthen burned reliefs are decorating the gable triangle, the first and the edge of the roof . Friezes with mythical creatures, struggling fighters and dancing and embracing nymphs and silens are decorating the walls. Bright are the colours, red ,white, blue, brown, and purple, are meeting strongly and increase the ecstatic impression of the represented. Colour painted and decorated with terrakotta plates are also the big houses, public houses and seats of the Mighty. The form of the house is the Atrium house, which later on, in Rome ,is the lodging stile of the rich. This form of a house has developed in Asia Minor and Syria, adapted at the climate there.

The organisation of the Town States corresponds to the old Atlantean stile. At the top is the king. Nobility families are the leading class, from which come warriors and priests. The monarchy is hereditary in the beginning, later on, when the nobility got stronger and stronger , the king is elected by the nobility from it for a year. A considerable weakening of his position, which  in the later warring with Rome has a very negative effect. The king is named “Lauchme” in Etruscian language, “Lucumo” in Roman texts. He is porting a diadem of gold, a sceptre, the coat of purple and sits on a throne. Signs of the position, which the whole Occident overtakes later on for their monarch stile. Possibly is also the peculiar form of address Euer Durchlaucht” for high ranged personalities due to the EtruscianLauchme”.

 

As symbol of power about life and death were carried the „fasces“, a bundle of switches in which stuck a doubles axe , in front of the king or put up at his side. The doubles axe is an ancient Atlantean symbol of power which one can find since the first time of Egypt. The bundle of switches is probably an Etrucian addition, possibly as a sign, that the king was not only master of the punishment with death but also of punishment with physical beating, what one can understand as a way to more human execution of a penalty. This becomes understandable, if one is aware , that the Etruscians came from the Assyrian ruled area, in which every kind of terrible punishment with death was usual. Later on in Rome become the “fasces” the “Bundle of Lictors“ , which as sign of power was carried in front of the current owner of rule. Mussolini took it later on as symbol for his “Black Shirts” and created with that the name “fascist”. This name was soon taken for all radically “Right” organisations.

 

The clothing of the Etruscians is due to the Atlantean tradition, as this is also known from Phoenicia , extravagant and colourful. The women are carefully hair styled and hanged  with valuable jewellery. They wear a tight tailored dress, reaching unto the floor, with belt. Above it, a coat like cover, reaching unto the knees. The cloth, often richly embroidered and frayed, shines  in well adjusted colours. A round or pointed cap covers the head. Similar hats were worn some centuries before by the Hethitian ladies. Men are wearing a knee long belted doublet, the “Tunika”. Above it a coat, draped at the shoulder, the “Tebenna”. It is predecessor of the Roman “Toga”, Expensive are the shoes of the Etruscians, which reach from light sandals with golden ribbons to tied boots for every day and feasts. As especially smart are regarded shoes with beaks and upper bended points as they are known earlier at the Hethitians.

In the towns is developing a varied commercial economy for the production of all sort of goods. The ceramic industry has an until than in Europe unknown blossoming. Besides earthen dish in numerous forms and decoration, is produced the typical Etruscian black ceramic, remembering at the Boettcher ceramic of Meissen. Under management of a Greek master, produces a manufacture in Caere the Caeretanian Hydrians, big jugs, painted with friezes of animals.

Metal production and working reached a high perfection. About the quality of jewellery was already spoken. Beside this were produced containers from bronze, casted mirrors, engraved containers and boxes, objects of daily use and naturally weapons of all kind.

The good iron, that could produce the Etruscians, equipped as swords, daggers, spear, arrow and lance points soon all people of Italy and over that the whole area of the Mediterranean and gave the base of arms for the wars, which soon Rome brought over the people of the Mediterranean and the Northern Europe.

 

As at Atlantean people of all times, music plaid a big roll also at the Etruscians in life , at ceremonies and in war. The trumpet, with its clear sound ,was invented by them and used as signal instrument in war. The horn trumpet used later on Rome as preferred instrument of its military music. Also there was a lightly bended horn, a sort of hunting horn and a long crooked horn. As string instruments were known the cithara , with seven strings, and the lyre. For play and dance one used rattles, similar to castanets. The most liked instrument was since old times, so also at the Etruscians , the pipe. Its music accompanied the daily work, sports and even the punishment of the slaves. The pipe play was also in Rome highly estimated and ought not to miss at ritual ceremonies. Even for luring the animals at hunting the charming tone of their pipes was used.

 

But not only at the sector of culture the country blossomed. The Etruscians were , basing on in millenniums collected agronomic and water engineering experience of the Atlanteans, master in cultivating of all sort of soil. They know canal and tunnel construction and had already in Urartru , Asia Minor and Mesopotamia proved , that they could solve every water engineering problem with high refinement. An art which even the water engineers of today sometimes are not master of, because they have lack of knowledge of the needs of nature. Therefore it would be desirable , that for engineers, who are allowed to make water engineering today ,an additional education in agronomics and forming of landscape should be necessary. The works of water engineering of the Etruscians and other Atlantean people could be even today an object of studies.

To that an example: Near the place ”Ansedonia” of today lays at feet of the steep falling rock the “Tagliatta Etruska”. It is a canal for drainage of the near situated Burano lake, and hinders it becoming a bog. It goes as far as the rock, penetrates it by a tunnel and flows into the sea. This is nothing extraordinary. The shrewdness of the Etruscians was, to hinder a blockage by sand of the outlet , to cut a gigantic barrier out off the rock, through which were driven two additional tunnels. By this order was achieved, that current and countercurrent acted alternately and the canal was never blocked by sand. It fulfils until now since 2200 years its purpose.

 

The Etruscian agronomic art made it possible, that also from agronomical difficult land could be won rich yield, which not only could provide the own numerous people, but enabled also exports in neighbouring areas. Wide regions at rivers, in valleys and plains, mainly in neighbourhood of the sea the so called ”Maremmen” , were drained at this time. Regions in the hinterland and at mountain slopes became irrigated artificially. A complicated installed system of canals, in which was collected the surplus water, passed through Etruria and later on also Latium. The surplus was after that conducted into the sea.

On the barren soil of the hills in the Maremmen were used the special methods of “dry-farming” of American dry culturing . than already used by the Etruscians. Here you can find, mostly decayed, rests of installations ,with which made the Etruscians the most of the irregular falling precipitations. The in winter falling rain was collected in artificial lakes, which were made waterproof with clay and a little bit added chalk, and lead by in different height installed pipes from burned clay to the vineyards.

One gathered with that marvellous yields. In the Chiana valley ,which was crossed by countless underground and open watercourses, was cultivated the sort of wheat “Spelt”. Besides that men cultivated millet, rye, oats and , as provider for the linen of the textile production, flax. The cultivation of wine, which is famous until now for the Toscana, was introduced by the Etruscians and its product was a high estimated article of export, which was provided as far as the Celtic regions north of the Alps.

 

Also animal breeding had a blossoming . Horses, similar to the Arabian whole blood, were bread as ride horses and draught horses for the two wheeled biga. With them were made the, at all Atlantean people beloved, car racings. The high grown cattle of the Toscana, with its wide spreading horns, shall be been imported than by the Etruscians from Asia Minor. Sheep and herds of pigs, which grazed in the oak woods, completed the stock of house animals. In the sea one caught the than still numerous tuna.

The towns had profit, as the country , from the water engineering of the Etruscians. Each town had canalisation and wells, which were provided by burned earthen pipe systems with fresh water from rivers or sources. Archaeologists found under many of the old towns, not completely mans height, point arched small walkways, which are crossing and completing and than and now connected by shafts with lower laying similar systems. An even now used technology of construction of canalization and draining, which for insiders is also usable as a system of secret walks.

Differences of height solved the Etruscians by underground  pipe systems, with pressure units and siphon, to bring water from large distance to the towns. They surpassed with that the water engineering of the Romans , with their spectacular, but in comparison technically primitive, economically incredible expensive , often disfiguring the landscape, and sensitive for destruction water installations. These water installations must be seen as step backwards of civilization, as many other of  Roman “achievements.”

 

The metal industry of Etruria surpassed all in Europe and Asia Minor known until than. It was, as in all Atlantean states before, the main source of wealth. The rich ore deposits of copper and iron, with high grades of metal, were mined and converted into metal. The melting furnaces are partly still conserved, so that its construction and function is known. They have the form of a truncated cone of nearly 1,80 m diameter, are inside lined with fire resistant bricks and divided by a floor with holes in an upper and bottom chamber. This floor is supported by a pillar from porphyry . In the bottom chamber is a rectangular door, through which can enter the air for burning and come out the molten metal.

The upper chamber was filled with a mix from charcoal and ore, possibly under addition of for the reduction process useful material as limestone, and in the bottom chamber lightened a fire from wood. Through the holes of the floor, the fire entered to the charcoal ore mix and set it into fire. With the developing heat began the process of reduction and melting. The coming out liquid metal flew, through the holes in the floor, into the bottom chamber, and through the door into the open air. By steady refill of charcoal ore mix from above, was a continuous process of metal gaining possible, as in a modern blast furnace. The furnaces were so built, that the in the valley predominating wind strengthened the draught in it, and created so a kind of bellow work, which reinforced the temperature in the furnace. An overheating could be avoided by a reduction of the bottom door opening.

The wood for the charcoal, needed in big quantity, was produced in an efficient wood culture in a rhythm of twenty years. This is known by the examination of left pieces of charcoal ,which all come from trees, having a maximum age of twenty years. So it is understandable, that astonishing quantities of ore could be worked out. The hills of slack at the coast of Elba, provided ,still in the first world war, the Italian iron industry as welcome reserve for warring.

Sporty games and car racing, beginning with religious ceremonies, played , as once in Atlantis , also in Etruria a big roll.

 

If one compares all parallels with Platons story of Atlantis, one could think, that Platon has described Etruria, if one does not recognize, that at least 500 years of vouched history are laying between these two states. But it is easy to see, that the Etruscians in many aspects followed the well known example of Atlantis and many characteristics, otherwise hardly to understand , are only understandable with that. That concerns before all other, the from them predicted limited existence of their state.

 The Etruscian games are depicted on frescos in the grave chambers of Tarquinia and Chiusi and on burial vases from Volterra. All Olympic sorts of sports are shown ,and, beside that, competitions of riders, flat and car racing. Portrayals, rich in details ,are showing competitors, heralds, referees and spectators, between whom are , contrary to Greece , also women with equal rights, as in all Atlantean states.

A further Atlantean speciality of feasts should go from the Etruscians to the Romans, and with them into the written history. It is the Atlantean procession, which becomes in Rome the “Triumph”. After victorious campaign, it was organized as gratitude to the gods, and was one of the highlights in the life of every state with Atlantean tradition. The victorious general, in Etruria mostly the king who lead the campaign, wore the regalia of a god. A purple, gold embroidered tunic, a also purple, gold decorated “Tebenna”, gold plated shoes, an ivory sceptre and as the sign of victory, a wreath of laurel. Face and arms were made up with red lead. Lictors with purple tunics formed the point of the procession, followed by men who carried selected pieces of the haul , arms, field signs and precious objects. Guided by servants of the temple, followed the sacrifice animals. White festively decorated steers with gold plated horns. Then followed selected prisoners, who were in the origin form, and sometimes also at the Etruscians and even at the Romans, also sacrificed, but mostly regarded as to precious for that. Than followed servants of the priests, swinging round smoke vessels.

Than came the triumphing general on a splendour car with two wheels, drawn by four white horses. A chorus of kitharists and titirists with body belts and golden bandages around the head strode beside the car. Under them was one man in long purple clothing, festooned with golden arm rings and neck jewellery, who makes ridiculous behaviours to the scorn of the enemy , and should perhaps represent the defeated ruler or general. It follows the long procession of elected warriors of the campaign – in Rome later the victorious legions – with their standards and field signs, interrupted again and again by groups of elected prisoners. The warriors sung alternatively praises and mockery songs about the victor.

Religion plaid a big roll in life of the Etruscians. Also in that, they were right descendents of the Atlanteans. There is in their life no sign of wear and tear of religiosity, as it is known from other cultures of decline. But perhaps it was, for this time, already too much religiosity ,which hindered the life and free development of forces of the individual. The phenomenon “Rome” could show in this direction.

The Atlantean archaic states demanded ones total integration into the life of  state , which was far going decided by religion. In Etruria it was , as its last representative, no other. Because of this, many men who disagreed, went to Rome, the town, which was in origin no Etruscian founding of old style. It was even ruled for some time by Etruscian kings, but did not come to know the absolute power of Etruscian priests, which ruled in  the old towns. In it lived a spirit more free, and this was for many people reason enough, to settle there.” The air of towns makes free” was in the 19th century the sentence , which lead many people in Europe out off the narrowness and dependence of their villages into towns, and it is pretty imaginable, that Etruscian people said “ the air of Rome makes free”.

 

But before we will talk about the „Phenomenon Rome“, some about the religion of the Etruscians. Because there is nearly nothing left of the writing concerning the religion, thanks of the thorough destruction work of the Romans, who had at least a bordering to hate aversion to the superior Etruscian culture, it is only possible, thanks the painstaking attention to detail of archaeologists and other scientists, that at 2000 A.C. there has developed a certain picture about it.

Without any doubt, was the Etruscian religion the base for the Italian and later Roman religion. But the complicated cults and rites, which were secret knowledge of the Etruscian priests, were nearly completely lost. Pointing out of the flight of the birds, the look at the liver, the interpretation of lightning, the reading of the Sybellinian Books could even in the prime of Rome only be done by Etruscian priests, and was not further possible when nobody was left of them.

 

The Etruscian religion is, after the opinion of the responsible scientists, as Jewry, Christianity and Islam a “Religion of the Book “. This “book” consists, as the Holy Bible, out of a collection of books, which called the Romans “Etrusca Disciplina”. The Etruscian name is not known. The in the books contained lessons shall come from the immortal gods. It was probably a collection of the originally oral handed and later on written down old lessons from Atlantean times. After an other source they shall be given from Tages to Tarchon. Tarchon is a mythical character, who at the founding of the oldest Etruscian town Tarquinia, at the ritual ploughing of the founding furrow, rose from the furrow and announced the lessons. This is surely a from priests created myth, to increase the value of the town founding history. The original books, the “libri tagetici“ were in course of the further immigration replenished by others. It was surely further knowledge ,which new immigrating priests brought with them, and was accepted for completeness. In it was the “Lesson of Lightning“, which was ascribed to the nymph Vegoia from Clusium and was probably imported by the group of immigrants, who settled in Clusium. As further creator of lessons is named Cacus. From the „Etruscian Disciplin“ are only maintained fragments. It was, when Rome turned to Christianity, consequently exterminated as superstition .But references to it are often in Roman literature, and so is possible a reconstruction of the framework, although there are missing many details. After Cicero the “Etruscian Disciplin” contained:

1.The books of the Haruspexes (libri haruspicini), Instructions for interpretation of the view of liver, of the flight of birds and other signs of nature.

2. The books of the lightning (libri fulguralis), which contained the interpretation of the lightning , in which the Etruscians distinguished twelve sorts.

3. The books of the rites (libri rituales) which contained the rites of feasts and sacrifices.

To this belonged the “libri acheruntici,” which probably contained the lessons of being after death, the “ostentaria” and the “libri fatales” the books of destiny.

Also to this belonged probably the Sybyllinic Books.

In the “libri fatales” was contained as most known prediction, that the Etruscian state should exist ten ages (saeculi) and than dissolve. This “saeculihad  not the same length, but the end of a saeculum was fixed by the highest priest of Etruria for reason of a special sign, which was seen by him. In practice it was so, that the first three Saeculi lasted 100 years and the following ones continuously shortened, probably for reason of increasing density of important events.

The world of gods of the Etrscians is known mainly from archaeological finds. As very important proved the back side of mirrors of bronze on which were shown mythological scenes and the portrayed gods were even called with their name.

 

Da diese Spiegel wertvolle Objekte darstellten, entgingen sie der Vernichtung durch die Roemer und die nachfolgenden Voelker. So sind bekannt als etruskische Goetter:
1. Tin, als Blitz- und Obergott, er entspricht bei den Roemern Zeus/Jupiter. Himmelsgott
2. Turan, Muttergoettin, entspricht Aphrodite, Venus. Himmelsgoettin
3. Aisera
4. Velchans, Natur und Geburtsgottheit
5. Sethlans, entspricht Hephaistos, Volcanus. Natur- und Zivilisationsgott (Kulturbringer)
7. Fufluns, entspricht Dionysos. Naturgott
8. Laran. Kriegsgott
9. Lethans. Himmelsgott
10. Cath oder Cautha. Himmelsgott
11. Turms, entspricht Hermes, Merkur. Himmelsgott
12. Nethuns, entspricht Poseidon, Neptunus. Wassergott
13. Maris, Sohn der Menrva. Himmelsgott
14. Menrva, enspricht Minerva, spaeter Uni, Astarte. Himmelsgoettin
15.Satre, entspricht Saturn. Erd- und Fruchtbarkeitsgott
16. Veive. Himmelsgoettin
17. Calu. Unterweltsgott
18. Thanr. Unterweltsgoettin
19. Charun. Unterweltsdaemon
20. Tuchulcha. Unterweltsdaemon
21. Vanth. Unterweltsdaemonin
22. Culan. Unterweltsdaemonin
23. Tages. Heilbringer (Kulturbringer)
24. Hercle enspricht Herakles, Herkules (Melkart phoenizisch). Heilbringer
dazu kommen aus urspruenglich italischer Quelle
1. Uni, entsprechend Hera, Juno, spaeter Astarte. Himmelsgoettin
2. Ani, entsprechend Janus.
Himmelsgott

 

 

For these mirrors were valuable objects, they escaped the destruction by the Romans and following people. So are known as Etruscian gods.

1.Tin, as god of lightning and upper god. He corresponds to Zeus, Jupiter at the Romans. God of heaven.

2.Turan, Mother god, corresponds to Aphrodite, Venus. Goddess of heaven.

3. Aisera

4.Velchans, God of nature and birth

5.Sethlans, corresponds to Hephaistos, Volcanus. God of nature and civilization (bringer of culture)

7.Fufluns, corresponds to Dionysos. God of nature.

8.Laran. God of war.

9.Lethans. God of heaven.

10. Cath or Cautha. God of heaven.

11.Turms. corresponds to Hermes, Merkur. God of heaven.

12. Nethuns, corresponds to Poseidon, Neptunus, God of water

13.Maris, son of Menrva, God of heaven.

14.Menrva. corresponds to Minerva, later on Uni, Astarte. Goddess of heaven.

15. Satre. corresponds to Saturn. God of earth and fertility.

16. Veive. Goddess of heaven

17. Calu. God of underworld.

18. Thanr. Goddess of underworld.

19. Charun. Demon of underworld.

20. Tuchulca. Demon of underworld.

21. Vanth. Female demon.

22. Culan. Female demon.

23. Tages. Bringer of welfare and culture.

24. Hercle. Corresponds to Herakles, Herkules (Melkart in Phoenicia), Bringer of welfare .

to these come from originally Italian source

1.     Uni. Corresponds to Hera, Juno, later on Astarte. Goddess of heaven.

2.     Ani. Corresponds to Janus. God of heaven.

And from originally Greek influence

1.Ap(u)lu. Corresponds to Apollo. God of heaven.

2. Semla or Semele

3. Castur. Corresponds to Castor.

4. Pultuke. Corresponds to Pollux.

5. Aritini. Corresponds to Artemis.

In practical believe of people, which is supported by finds of sacrificial offering , are playing couples as Maris and Menvra and Hercle and Menvra a bigger roll, besides that a female goddess ( Turan, Artemis or Fortuna) and Fufluns, the Etruscian Dionysos.

This is only a selection , to it comes a row of servant gods as Genius, Leinth and Mean.

One can see, the heaven of gods was richly stocked, what is not at last attributable to the fact, that every immigrating tribe brought his gods under their name with them. Their specific qualities were differently interpreted and understood, what a standardisation even in Etruscian times made a heavy task, as far as there was a need for it.

Because the reader shall not be kept back by the complicated questions of the Etruscian religion, is recommended for interested ones the literature (22) which contains a detailed scientific information of all questions after the knowledge of the year 2000 A.C. by an excellent expert.(in German language)

 

Here shall only be entered into the numerously indicated relationship of Etruria to Rome, that at last the destiny of the country, its people and its culture sealed.

The founding and the growing of Rome was at last a consequence of the Etruscian expansion.

After the centre land, the Toscana, was settled and developed with the towns of the Etruscian “bundle of the twelve” began the expansion to North, East and South. To North goes the expansion as far as Florence and than into the plain of the Poe as far as Melpum, Acerrae, Mantua, Ravenna and Rimini. At the mouth of the Poe are created the harbour towns Adria, which gives its name to the sea,and Spina. To South goes the expansion through Latium and the Campagna until the Greek and Cathargean regions of influence ,with its towns Cumae, Paestum and Neapolis ,set their limits. So it ends with the occupation of the towns Capua and Nola. Also Pompeji, Herculaneum and Praeneste, the later Palestrina are belonging to its area. A big and rich country, in which commerce and traffic, music and the fine arts are blossoming. But in the middle of it is growing something, that some time seems to belong to it, but than goes its own way, and as the egg of a cuckoo developing, shall drive out and at last kill the long established ones. Its name is “Rome”.