The History of Atlantis

 

                                                                                                                    by Karl Juergen Hepke

 

                                                                                                                               Book 1

 

 

                                                                                                                         Introduction

 

 There are on earth in the area of western Europe, in Africa and in the near Orient several inexplicable artificial buildings  and modifications of nature out of very old times. Nearly all have the following characteristics: They consist in very big and heavy stones, they have often extraordinary good fitting surfaces, they have been transported over many kilometres from the place of quarrying to the place of utilization.

 It begins with the stone settings of Stonehenge in England, continues with the rows of stones and the Menhirs at the Atlantic coast of France, is visible in the palace constructions of Crete and Mycenes and finds its high point in the gigantic pyramids and temple constructions of Egypt. In historical times are found “cyclopic walls” still in fortresses of the Etruscans and Carthageans . With the sinking of these old nations , caused by the extension of the Roman empire, vanishes the art of megalithic building.

But also nearly all the knowledge of the highly cultivated nations, who created these buildings , was consciously or unconsciously destroyed or fell into forgetting.

 

 The aim of this book shall be, to follow these beginnings of mankind  in the area of our Western culture and find out from the traces ,what was before the Greek and Roman , the Egyptians and Assyrians, the Arian immigrants of India and the Doric immigrants of Greece, and it will be shown, that astonishing will come out.

 

Because it will become evident ,that the often as fairytale or legend named culture of Atlantis existed in reality and that it has left very concrete traces, which until now influence wide areas of the cultures of the West and the middle East as far as India.

 

Megaliths, Magical Stone Circles, Menhirs and Dolmen (17)

 

When in the year 1937 the Scotsman J. Foster Forbes maintained in a B.B.C broadcasting series about the prehistoric Britannia, the architects of the megalithic monuments in Northern Europe had

been surviving people of Atlantis, he caused in the circles of the officially recognized prehistoric experts considerable sensation. But it was not only this assertion, because Forbes, who possessed as real Highlander and with that as direct descendant of the Atlanteans, the second sight, made further clear , that these stone settings were not only used for astronomical purposes and calculations but over that as receiving stations for direct influence of heavenly constellations and that especially at determined times of the year.

They enabled the Atlantean caste of priests the practice of by them mastered elementary sciences, which allowed them to control weather and seasons and to make use of the spiritual energy of sun, moon and stars. The rocks of quartz for example, which are found in many stone circles were built in to absorb the magnetic currents of earth and the vital energy, which was so contracted, could have been conserved in especially placed stones, as the rock of Dartmoor.

With that, nowadays for us hidden knowledge of these and other things joined with spirituality and piety, created the caste of priests the conditions and the atmosphere for a golden age, lasting for thousands of years, in which mankind developed from primitive hunting and collecting to the mental and cultural developed man of the Atlantean Empire.

To similar results as Forbes came the professional archaeologist T.C. Lethbridge, who was employee of the archaeological museum of Cambridge. After his retirement in 1957 he added a new dimension to methods of prehistoric studies with the use of dowsing rod and pendulum. He found , that with this method things could be dated and sometimes something of its purpose could be discovered. In course of his work, which lead to many publications, he removed from the orthodox view of his guild and came to a world of new spiritual experience After his opinion the megalithic stone circles and alignements served as help for navigation of extraterrestrial visitors and was with that in accordance with the opinions of Erich von Daeniken, with whom he cooperated, what caused at his former guild colleagues a cry of horror. At the attempt to date the stone circle of Merry-Maidens by help of pendulum he and his wife received strong electric shocks. He supposed, that this in the stones conserved energy came from people, who had danced in a circle round the stones.

He was not the first who was at the traces of the secrets of the stones. Already in 1939 the trustee of British and Roman antiquities at the British Museum , Reginald Smith, had published a paper, in which he claimed that all stone circles and prehistoric graves in hills were built at centres of strong electricity, which could scent every dowser himself. Some years before, his French colleagues Merle and Giot had published similar findings from Carnac in Brittany. The dynamic qualities of megalithic places are until now again and again confirmed by dowsers as by technical devices.

 

But there are more interesting aspects of megalithic stone settings. The best known is that of an astronomical observatory and the most standing out and best known representative is the observatory of Stonehenge in Cornwall in Great Britain. Cornwall had a big roll in the Atlantean Empire, for it was the origin of big transports of tin, which gave reason for the wealth and the political and military power of the Atlantean Empire. Much "money" came to Great Britain and it became in course of development of the Atlantean Empire a preferred place of settlement for the Atlanteans. For it possessed two traditionally in the Atlantean Empire high estimated advantages. It was an island and offered with that safety against enemies from the outside and it possessed good areas for breeding of cattle.

 

Combined with that is also to see the development of Stonehenge, which grow from a simple observatory to a high complicated building, which fascinates still men of today and became in the western world a symbol for the forces which have determined the beginning of cultivated mankind. A part of it is also the Atlantean Empire and the after its sinking long preserved knowledge of its priests, who were later on called in Great-Britain druids.

 

When today the people of Amesbury near Stonehenge come together in the morning of the longest day of the year to see the sun rising behind the Helstone, they make this from old tradition. For as long as you can think, men have done this. Today they are again in partnership with the members of the order of druids, which, after many hundreds of years of suppression by Romans and Christians, in the time of Enlightenment in the 18th century gradual returned to life. But this with big reductions, for the initially extensive knowledge of the druids, which , to avoid misuse ,was only passed by word of mouth, was lost to big parts in the time of suppression and pursuit and has to be laboriously reconstructed by the new druids from the conserved rests.

 

So in the year 1740 A.C. the Druidic reformer Reverend William Stukeley detected, that the central axis of Stonehenge and the entrance that lead away from it, points exactly to the North West where the sun rises at the longest day. He quoted Plutarch and other classical authorities who reported the old practice, to align temples to the sun rising of the midsummer day. Taking as basis the direction of the central axis he calculated that the druidic architects had used the magnetic compass and with calculation of the alteration of magnetic deviation in the course of centuries he found out as time of creation of Stonehenge the time of 460 B.C.

 

With that he was better as his predecessors who had dated it in the time of the Romans, to whom everything old was attributed in the time of absolut mental rule of the Christian church. Obviously its representatives tried to make not existing all what happened before the Romans to make it forgotten for the people. This way of acting was successful for several centuries and would further determine our thinking if not in men the knowledge of the old cultures was conserved and science had found new methods of time fixing which can correct these misinterpretations.

 

Also the further entrance, which turns to South East after 500 m , was closer examined by Stukeley and he detected, that it was exactly leading to a hill, rising behind the mountain crest of Haradon Hill. In the morning of the 11. May 1724 he stood at this Haradon Hill and saw that the plain behind the hills was so lightened by the shine of the sun that the hills before it looked like suspended on flames. With that he was one of the first, who discovered, that important buildings of the Atlanteans were built in respect to the country side and the heavenly bodies , with which he proved, that the priests of the Atlanteans - as the Chinese, by whom this science is handed over to today - mastered the science of Geomanty or Feng-shui, as it is called in China.

 

 

Contemporary of him was John Wood, Architect in Bath, who had standing out qualities in high imagination and land surveying. He discovered that the druidic temple of Bath was so constructed that each noticeable place in the countryside was set into a sacred relationship to it. The seven hills of Bath were dedicated each to a celestial body, in the center was the temple and the university of priests. John Wood pointed out in his work" Choir Gavre, generally called Stonehenge" , that was published in 1747 that the number and order of the stones represented astronomical cycles. This was supported by later authors.

 

So published in 1770 Dr. John Smith his work "Choir Gawr, the big planetarium of the old druids, called Stonehenge" in which he demonstrated further astronomical dates and rules, that he had detected. The Irish General Valencey made a lot more progress. In his 1798 published work "Oriental Collections" he compared the druidic astronomical system with that of the Indians and Chaldaeans and detected astonishing accordances, obviously not knowing, that he was at the same track, that of the old Atlanteans and their rooms of settlement. Similar it was with his contemporary Maurice, who came in an article published in "Indian Antiquities" to comparable results.

 

Godfrey Higgins published in the year 1829 for the first time an estimate of the age of Stonehenge based on astronomical considerations and came to a date of origin of nearly 4000 B.C.. With the knowledge of today this can be true. His colleague Wansey acknowledged the " for observation of the heavenly body best location of Stonehenge" and the knowledge of druids, Bramahns and Chaldaeans and came to the conclusion, that an experienced Bramahn, as latest surviving representative of the old knowledge, could certainly discern much more of the sense and purpose of the construction than a normal mortal.

 

Im spite of all counterargument the official opinion got through that Stonehenge had something to do with the stars. The published details however were still disputed. The attitude of science can at least be summarized in the words of a further author, the Reverend E. Duke, who said:" The astronomy appears here early as a science and those who built these constructions possessed a knowledge to which we should persist in respect and admiration."

In the year 1901 the important astronomer and scientist Sir Norman Lockyer concerned himself with Stonehenge, after he had before measured Egyptian temples. He had found confirmed that the temples were so constructed that at its laying of the foundation the axis of the temple laid exactly in direction to the rising assigned star. These stars, from which Lockyer found eight, were in the Egyptian religion assigned to a certain god, to whom was also consecrated the temple, as was shown by existing inscriptions. Therefore it was possible to conclude from the axis of the temple and the knowledge of the to it belonging star the year of foundation of the temple. In some cases he succeeded in proving this theory, in others it was impossible to identify the belonging star.

 

With this knowledge Lockyer began the measuring of Stonehenge and detected, that the year of foundation could be the year 1820 B.C.. But it was necessary to let a tolerance of + - 200 years because by modifications of the stones their original assignment was not certain. Measuring by radiocarbon in times of today have confirmed this date. Also seen from the history of the Atlantean Empire this would have been a convenient date for the foundation of a big plant of temples at the "Kassiteric Islands", how they were called in that time.

 

But for the purpose of agricultural economy one astronomical and meteorological center was not sufficient. The distances and the corresponding time delay for making the announcement were too big. Therefore there were in many parts of the Atlantean empire more simple astronomical constructions, with the help of which the seasons and the time for sowing and harvest and other important dates could be fixed. Of them is preserved in the area of the British islands a big number, often in a relative good state. To them are belonging: The Drumbeg stone circle in the district of York, Callanish at the Hebrids, the Tregeseal stone circle near St. Just, Castle Rigg near Keswick in Cumberland, the Boscawen-un circle near Lands End in Cornwall and many others.

 

At the examination for special dates often was found, that in addition to summer and winter solstice also days in May and November were marked. It is probable that with them were marked dates for festivities to the beginning and the end of the rural year, which were certainly consecrated to certain gods. Also in Stonehenge were found markings for these days and it is certain, that they were there long time before the markings of the solstices, so that the date of 4000 B.C., which was named by Higgins, is really possible for the beginning of the plant.

 

But not only stone circles were used for the fixing of important dates. Often it was sufficient to use from a stone a second point of bearing in the countryside, for example the top of a mountain or a rock. Was this point not existing in natural form, so at plains or hills without striking structure, a second stone was erected in large distance. A third and fourth in other direction marked further dates. Because these stones were very important they were erected at places which were detected by priests as especially good fitting.

If this happened in an area good settled and wealthy, these stones were often very big and corresponding heavy. In Brittany and in Vendee in France are Menhirs, how they are called there, of a height of seven meters and more no rare occurrence. These stones , which are mainly made from granite, were transported often over many kilometres. Mostly they have a to the upper side narrowing form and a semicircular head or a rounded down top to make easier an exact bearing. In this context it is interesting, that in the old Canaan the god was worshiped in a stone, narrowing to the upper side like a Menhir in the described form. That with that often were created forms of a Phallus, was perhaps a side effect, perhaps intended. The cult of fertility plaid certainly a big role in the mainly rural orientated Atlantean economy. Also in later Celtic times the Menhirs were often respected as symbols of fertility and visited corresponding.

 

Young women, dancing round a Menhir, were however for many Christian zealots and moralizers a heathen atrocity. They turned down the Menhirs, buried or shattered them. Only the biggest and most heavy resisted to the attempts of destruction. Therefore it is today often a hard task, to find out the system in that they had been erected. With its turning down and new erection in recent times the original position is often restored not exactly. This is partly attribute to the fact, that for a long time and often still existing, not was known, how important was just this point. So exists still the situation, that an especially imposing Menhir is taken from its original place in the field, where it hinders modern farming with big machines, and is placed at the edge of the field or in a park in front of the town hall. A modern sacrilege by ignorance.



Similar outrages were made to the graves of big stones or dolmen, how they are called in France. This, although they were known as graves for long times. But because they were "heathen and

not consecrated" the respect to them was not very big. Also in times of today, where farmers are owners of strong technical device, are these graves, positioned in the field and hindering farming, destroyed.

 

 The stones are buried or deposited in tangled pile at the edge of the field. Also for these graves is lost the original place, which was chosen by the priests under certain aspects. These aspects are today not known by us, but we have still the feeler for them. For even men of today feel, when they visit these places if it is original or only ersatz. For only the original place is surrounded by the magic, that is performed by unconsciously felt forces of nature and the surrounding countryside.

 

But often the visitor of these prehistoric places is obstructed by cordoning and fences to perceive this magic. So today the big plants of Carnac in South Brittany are only seen from far away. These plants, the origin and use of which was often discussed until now, were used as places of meeting of inhabitants of the Atlantean Empire at the coasts of the Atlantic, the North Sea and perhaps of delegations from areas of the Baltic Sea.

 

These plants are oriented with their lines of stones to a circle of stones, a so called "cromlech" in the middle of which lies a big stone as altar. This altar stone is so positioned that behind it sinks the sun at certain days in May. As known from British old stone circles, these days were special days of festival in rural life of the Atlanteans.

 

The seed was brought in, the sun of May produced first days of summer and it was time to ask gods for a good growth and flourishing and a good harvest and to make sacrifices to them. But also the fertility of the people was considered. At the big meeting were met new people, arranged marriages and children fathered, who were born before the beginning of the new rural year and were accompanied in their first months of living by the rising sun. This rhythm of live was known by the farmers and cattle breeders from their animals and brought from experience best results. Ceremonial rites and sacrifices in front of the sinking sun brought the right mood for the following banquet and offering of mutual sense of belonging.

 

South Brittany had best conditions for such a meeting at this time of the year. The wide areas of heath without forest gave place to a gigantic crowd. Flat and deep into the land penetrating bays of the sea kept without problems a large lot of boats. The peninsula of Quiberon gave protection against the big waves of the Atlantic and the Morbihan "the little sea" was a natural harbour for thousands of boats. With it came the central position with same distance to Denmark and South Iberia. No planner of today could find or create a better fitting place for an event like this.

 

 

And so were built at this place, probably one after the other to fit the growing crowd, the gigantic alignements. In rows of thousands of meters erected the families, instructed by the planning priests, their stones. At the front and in the middle, at places with best sight, were the big, old and mighty families contending in size and beauty of their stones. To the end and at the sides became stones more and more little and unimportant corresponding to the social position of their owners.

 

All that had a style and a logic and documents a closeness to forces of nature which is not reached by plants of today. Each knew, where he was belonging to. There was no crush, no lack of parking and everybody could move between the happenings and found back to his people and his stone.

One can easily discern, that here was available a mental capacity, which can compete with that of men of today. It is only desirable, that wrongly understood necessity of protection leads not further to actions, which hinder by fences men of today to visit these signifying places of our past.

 

 For only one , who, probably at a misty morning in May, experiences Carnac without fences in its original form, will feel in his inner the meaning of this place and emotion will seize him, like that, which seizes him when he enters a cathedral. Also the cathedrals were mostly built at places which were shrines in Atlantean times and the form of the gothic cathedral , created in northern France, had its model obviously in the old places of ritual worship. The choir is corresponding to the cromlech, the altar is at the same place and the rows of pillars are corresponding to the rows of stones of alignements.

Very little known are also the megalithic places of Spain and Portugal. For who knows, that the origin of megalithic culture is scientifically proved in the South of Iberia. So many visitors of Seville, Cordoba and Granada do not see the very old town of Antequera without knowing, that there are buildings, which have a much more meaning for them than the creations of the Moors, how lovely they may be. These are the buildings of their ancestors, who have proved here about 2000 B.C. in the impressing countryside of the crossing from the Andalusian plain to the mountains of Malaga, that they were able to do more than hunting with arrow and bow for wild animals.

 

In Antequera there are the most signifying megalithic dolmen of the prehistoric world, which can definitely compete with the graves of kings of Egypt. So lies at the exit of the town to Granada an artificial hill that contains two graves with corridor. The bigger one, the Cueva de Menga is 25m long, 2,7m high and has a width of 6,5m at its maximum.


The walls at the side and the ceiling are made from rectangular stone slabs, that are added one to another nearly without gaps. In the middle of the corridor three mighty rectangular pillars are supporting the gigantic stone slabs of the ceiling from which the biggest has a weight of 180 tons. This and the others are brought from a distance of at least 1 Km. This happened about 2500 B.C. at the same time, when in Egypt were built the pyramids in a similar megalithic technology. It is

interesting, that the entrance of the main grave is oriented to a separate impressing mountain, dominating the countryside. Nature offered her in natural manner that, what in the desert of Egypt had to be artificially and laboriously in form of pyramids. In the same hill is a small grave with corridor, the Cueva de Viera, which was probably made for the members of the family of the king.

A little bit more away, at the road to Malaga is a further grave with hill, the Cueva de Romeral, which is dated for 1800 B.C. It is built in masterly form in an obvious more new technology, which you can find also in West-France in a more simple form. The walls of the side are here made from exactly piled up, easy to handle small stone slabs and only the ceiling is made from big stone slabs. Behind the corridor is although waiting a special delicacy for the visitor interested in development of architecture and culture. The corridor is leading into two big perfectly circular constructed rooms with vault, which are built in the very old technique of the vault with protruding stones finished with large stone slab as cover.

 

Everything is made so exactly and masterly that it has overcome 3800 years and certainly several big earthquakes without big damage. The use of a circular vault with middle opening is especially interesting here, because normally the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul is respected as mother of all circular vaults which was followed by San Marco in Venice and the churches of Cahors and Perigeux in the South of France. All these churches are lying in a former area of settlement of the Goths, who have also proved in Verona and Ravenna that they had a particular liking for circular vaults. Because the Goths were also Atlanteans and obviously not the badest representatives of this imaginative and skilful nation the circular vault can have migrated from Iberia to South Russia and than back again.

 

Also in Almeria, the most Eastern town of Andalusia, are found many traces from prehistoric times. The area of the harbour is today built with plants from modern times but 26 Km northern lies the excavation area of Los Millares at a hill above the Rio Andarax. It has the for that time considerable size of a small town of today and is formed for a big part by caves. The fortified settlement is old more than 4000 years and the place of origin of the famous bell formed tumbler, that gave the name to a epoch of culture of Middle- Europe. A lot of further places of finds in the province of Almeria shows, that this area, now nearly desert, was densely settled in the Neolithic period. Many of the settlements are situated in the proximity of former rich ore deposits of silver and gold and the material for the production of bronze (El Argar culture).

 

 Stone setting near Evora

 

The area of Evora in South Portugal is also rich in megalithic monuments. Here is situated a place of ritual worship, remembering the alignements of France but smaller than in Brittany, with cromlech, altar-stone and rows of stones. The finds in these places of South Iberia are clearly pointing out, that between 4000 and 2000 B.C. the center of European culture and with that the center of the Atlantian Empire was situated in South Iberia and that from here knowledge and culture was spreading over the countries of North- and Middle Europe and the Mediterranean.

 

                                            

                            Dolmen for the Dead , Menhirs for the Living

 

            The indelible megalithic tracks of the Atlanteans in Europe ,Africa and Asia.

 

For the progressive archaeologist of Europe and Asia there is today no doubt about the existence of a cultivated people, which buried their dead since nearly 4000 B.C. in western Europe and later on also in the near Orient and in Asia in specially extravagant burials. Extravagant and remarkable were these burials especially by being constructed mainly with very big stones, the weight of which went up to 200 tons, and could not be destroyed by a little unorganized crowd of men . The robber could even reach the burial chamber and plunder it, what often happened, but the real grave existed until today.

 

For the robber searched mainly the objects made of metal , which were of high value for him, he left all other unnoticed, so that also robbed burials are a place of rich finds for an archaeologist of today. In not robbed burials he finds often good worked out arms from stone, bronze or iron, jewellery from bones, stone, shells, amber, bronze or iron. Over that a mass of fragments of ceramic, which can often be reconstructed to the original container and, if the grave is constructed on chalky ground, also the bones of the there buried. Enough material to gain at the today level of Archaeology, Pathology, and Anthropology far reaching insights about the life, the kind, sicknesses and medical interventions and the probably reason for death of the buried.

 

Also the date of the graves is no more a insoluble problem with the progressive methods of definition of age with radiocarbon and thermoluminiscence  and produces scientifically tenable clarity against the old method of comparative definition of age. It was often the reason for many depending errors of dating, which until now are going around in scientific literature and give reason for many question marks at older information of age. Because only since 1950 was, thanks to the new methods,

given the precondition to examine the burials of the megalithic cultures systematically and nearly incontestable and to evaluate and document them. For this new methods are scientifically expensive and with that costly, was new research only made in those countries ,where sufficient money was made available for this.

 

 

At the first place is here to name France that has a big lot of megalithic monuments and is very engaged in its research. Also in Great Britain , which, as before told, was researched since long times by amateurs, are existing since 1960 scientific examinations after new methods. Denmark has since long times respected and researched the acknowledged burials of their ancestors. In Mecklenburg were in times of the German Democratic Republic the beginnings of the farming culture in the early stone age, its origin and with that also the megalithic monuments intensively researched and documented.

 

But dating after radiocarbon method is here sparsely available and scarcely documented. Similar it looks in the area of the old Federal Republic of Germany. In Lower Saxony, in which is situated the biggest part of the local megalithic monuments, was created a Atlas of Megalithic Monuments, which, as other literature of this area,

has found no international spreading and is not known for example in France.

 

 Still worse it looks in Spain and Portugal. Nearly since 1950 one is engaged in some regions in registration of the megalithic monuments without reaching a completeness until now. There exists even today the danger of destruction by construction of roads and other building projects , for there exists no sufficient protection. The respect of the population for these monuments of a culture, for which exists no inner relation caused by change of population, is very low. If this European heritage of culture shall be preserved , the research must be in a European context.

 

 For at the other side the races of the megalithic culture are supposed to be in the South of Spain and this is nearly sure for the a little later existing Bell-formed-culture and the following West European time of bronze there must be an eminent interest in West-European countries to conserve the here existing heritage of culture. Examination and comparison of megalithic monuments in Western Europe have shown that certain forms and orders of the buildings are repeating in many countries and areas. Similar is evident for the ceramics and metallic things found in the burials. One can derive from this with high probability, that there existed an active change of ideas and articles between the areas, which had often the character of an island in a sphere of an other or more primitive culture.

 

From this, it is not a far-fetched thought to speak about an empire, namely the “Atlantean”, which maintained tight cultural, economic and probably also military and with that political connections. The contacts between the parts of this empire - the “islands” how it called the Egyptians – went over the water, the sea or the rivers. Scientifically proved is over that, that the introduction of agriculture happened at the same time as the construction of the megalithic monuments.

 

For Denmark this time is 4200 B.C. for the introduction of agriculture and the first dolmen come from the middle of the 4th millennium (14). In England was the simple dolmen of Carrowmore No.7 in the county Sligo dated for 3290 B.C. after carbon 14. The dating of the most simple dolmen of the French coast of the Atlantic gave the time of 4600 B.C.. Around 4000 B.C. there were here several expensive build grave monuments in which were buried unto 200 persons one after the other.

 

 

The ceramic, found in the dolmen of 4600 B.C. was already highly developed, with round base, of good quality and very little decoration (14). Around 3000 B.C. here were the first articles of Mediterranean origin , made of copper. Around 2700 B.C. appeared the first bell-formed ceramic and since 4000 B.C. were here created the first big fields, surrounded by interrupted ditches.

 

 From Spain and Portugal there are dates of construction of big megalithic monuments around 3300 B.C. until 1800 B.C.. This last dating is not secured by radiocarbon and seems to be too young, for generally is seen that the construction of big megalithic monuments ends around 2000 B.C. and there are only later burials in the already existing ones.(14) One can derive from this, that the main interest of the Atlantean empire and its leading circles moved in this time into the Mediterranean area, which is proved by the historical known activities in the area of Canaan and Syria and later on Egypt (Hyksos).

 

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