Etruria, Return of Culture to the West (15f, 22)
by Karl Juergen Hepke
Etruria, that is the country in the North of Italy, the heartland of which is today called Toscana . Rome is situated at its southern end and belonged at first not to the settling region of the Tyrhenians or Tusker, how the new settlers , who began around 700 B.C. to settle down here, were called by their contemporaries the Greek and Carthageans .
The country, that they had chosen , was little inviting at that time and therefore poorly settled. The volcanic structure of the soil in the southern part supported wetness of soil and bogs and so had the settlers until than , who are called after the discovery place of their culture “Villanova people”, around 1200 B.C. only settled down at favoured places. This places were favoured, beside by relative convenient soil, by deposits of ore. This provided the raw material for the production of bronze.
After the archaeological finds proved the Villanova people an astonishing skill in the workmanship of this material, what is pointing out, that they have brought with them this knowledge at their immigration. By this it is nearly sure, that they came to Italy from the origin Atlantean area, either from North over the Alps or from West over the sea.
But this was only a prelude, which possibly was sufficient, to bring the information of the here richly available ore of iron and copper to the related tribes, which had migrated as far as the Near Orient. When than since 700 B.C. the life in the areas of the Near East , bothered by Assyrians and Persians , became more and more difficult and dangerous, a part of the population started to go by ship to North Italy .
From where the boats came is not exactly known. After Herodotus they came from Phrygia and Lydia, that means from western Turkey of today. Further possible places of origin are coast towns of southern Turkey, like Tarsus, and the towns at the Phoenician coast. At the same time was founded Carthage for similar reasons at the coast of North Africa by Tyrus. There was at that time a general emigration in direction West, which found expression in the later Roman stories of Dido and Aeneas.
The men who entered the boats, to go West ,were to the biggest part the descendents of the Atlantean people, who penetrated as “Sea People” 400 years ago into Near Asia. At that time they had to escape the bad climatic conditions and the by them caused famines of the cosmic catastrophe of 1250 B.C.. The climate had now, especially in the southern areas, got better and the abundant falls of rain, which many regions made to bog, had given way to a mixed climate with rain, sun and many thunderstorms
The burial monuments, which the new settlers constructed in the new won area, show without doubt their affiliation to the Atlantean culture. The first graves were hills of earth above a base, tall as a man, from tuff stone .They have in the middle a burial chamber from rock stone with a roof, formed as a gable. Similar grave hills are known from the time of bronze in northern Germany, where for the base were used sods of heath and for the burial chamber erratic stones.
Sometimes later is than the rectangular burial chamber covered with a dome of protruding stones as in Spain in Antequera and in Mycenes in the „Treasure House of Atreus“. Also were found graves with circles of stone slabs put vertically on to 70 m diameter , which had originally surrounded a grave hill ,.
This construction remembers to graves in Britain. From these traditional orientated beginnings, developed the to one nation growing groups of newcomers an own stile, which is unique in the world and forms the worthy end of the great grave cultures , with origin in the Atlantean culture.
In gigantic towns of dead the so called “Necropoles”, which were often larger and more extended as the towns itself, buried the Etruscans their dead in richly decorated halls ,hewn into the often weak rock. The burial objects are showing social position and wealth of the buried and were therefore since early times and especially in the 19th century the aim of grave robbers, who have fortunately until now not succeeded in finding all graves.
At the place of them followed since the beginning of the 20th century professional archaeologists, who at least took care, that their finds came into “public” hands, if one can call so museums , which keep their treasures in inaccessible cellars, if they got not ”lost”. Because of interest of private collectors, are the from the graves robbed treasures now spread all over the world and are reaching best prices at auctions, if they come there.
But some stays open to public and shows the high level of the Etruscan culture. So two Italians succeeded 1836 in finding in an already several times excavated grave hill , a completely intact burial. When they entered into the grave chamber from strong rock , covered with a gable, they thought that their eyes were cheating them. On a catafalque made of stone was resting covered with jewellery the skeleton of a women. Around were standing valuable objects and gave the impression of a splendour, only known from reports from the Orient.
By the valuable jewellery and the abundance and splendour of the offerings must it be the burial of a princess or high priest. Separated from her, were buried in the front part of the grave, two additional dead. In a niche stood an urn with the ash of a warrior, surrounded from his weapons. In the corridor laid on a bed from bronze, the bones of a second man.
This finds are now presented in the Regolini-Galassi Hall of the museum Gregoriano in the Vatican, where they sleep nearly unnoticed , bad illuminated and insufficiently inscribed . Especially remarkable is a golden breast plate , a so called “Pectorale” covered with ornaments of plants and animals, which can be interpreted as a sign of highest dignity.
Similar breast plates are decorating a winged sphinx in the Assyrian town Nimrud and the portrayal of the Assyrian king Assurnasipal II in his quality as a priest.
Also in Israel belonged the breast plate - “chochen” in Hebrew-to the feast clothing of the High Priest. A further piece of splendour is a golden disc fibula, which presents a magnificent specimen of old gold workmanship. The here used technology of granulation of finest balls of gold and its welding on the surface beneath was thought for a long time as not more practicable and was feasible only in times of today.
The in the rooms of graves found burial objects consisted under others in a bed of bronze, big round shields from bronze with the portrayal of heads of panthers , kettles from bronze , deep dark shining dish - called Bucchero - decorated with sinister animals. Besides this, cups and drinking vessels from silver , thin walled, gold plated bowls from bronze, fire benches and smoke cars. Two vehicles, a burial car with four wheels and a biga with two wheels for feast days and war and a with bronze decorated throne are completing the equipment.
For amusement and entertainment were added games with rotating discs and dices and for food big earthenware vessels with grain, oil, honey and eggs. There was no lack of anything ,that needs the household and supply of a high positioned personality and even the name could be discovered at eleven drinking vessels. She was named Larthi. The grave comes from the seventh century B.C. and shows, that the “Etruscans” even at their immigration brought with them a culture, which represented the highest level of metal working and production of ceramics, ever reached by Atlantean people.
Another grave of a princess in the proximity of Tarquinia, the oldest town of the Etruscans, which was before incompletely robbed, offered in 1895 further objects of art. Under it a chain with ninety one dainty figures of Gods from green Egyptian faience and a high balsam can from the same material. On a picture strip is the ruler of the Nile land portrayed in the circle of Gods and an inscription contains the name of a pharaoh the Bok-en-ranf.
This ruler, who were called by the Greek Bokchoris, reigned from 734 until 728 B.C.. He fell in a battle with the Aethiopians. One think, that not long after his death, the can, which was possibly a gift to her, was given the princess into her burial and the dating of the grave is with that around 700 B.C. At 1900 man was still dependent on dating after finds , for the dating with radiocarbon , thermoluminescence or dendrology was still unknown.
From the wilderness of the untouched landscape formed the immigrants a culture land with fields, plantations and gardens. At clearings and drained before boggy soil, was ploughed and cultivated grain. In the ore rich valleys of the “Colline metallifere”, the “Toifa” mountains and the island Elba were tunnels driven into earth and mined ore . Charcoal kiln smouldered and melting furnaces are busy in the valleys to win copper and much, much iron. The extraction and working of iron was obviously the essential art, which imported the Etruscans from Asia Minor, the country of the iron working Hethitians, and which brought them wealth and later on their destruction.
A chain of fortified towns marked the landscape. At the coast 30 Km north of the mouth of the Tiber laid Caere. Cisra in Etruscan language, with its three harbours Alsium, Punicum and Pyrgi. 40 Km North followed Tarquinia, the oldest founding of a town.
Farther North West followed Vulci, native place of the second Etruscian king of Rome, Servius Tullius. Above a lake with connection with the sea follows Vetluna and than, hidden between chains of hills, Rusellae, today Roselle.
Opposite of Elba lays, on a hill at the sea, Pupluna, later Populonia. Farther, near to the coast ,follows Velathri, today Volterra, town of origin of the alabaster. In the inner country are joining: South West of the Trasimenian Lake, Chamars, Clusium at the Romans, today Chiusi.
Then Volsinii with the Etruscian centre shrine at the Bolsena Lake and completely in the South , in the dangerous proximity of Rome, Veji. At the slope of the Appenin are joining the places Arretium, today Arezzo, Cortuna, Perusia and Orvieto.
Twelve of the biggest towns are forming the Northern “Bundle of the Twelve” in which the holy number of twelve occurs. Newly installed roads are connecting towns and places. Procession roads lead in front of the towns to the Necropoles.
Three gates are leading into the inner of the town, three temples belong to them. Much stronger then the Celts the Etruscans cultivated an exceptional mystic of numbers, in which the number three played an extruding roll. The Tuscan temple appears heavy and stocky and is nearly square in its ground plan. Often it has three cult niches and is vowed to the divine trinity Tinia, the upper god, from whom comes Jupiter at the Romans, Mnvra, from who comes Minerva and Uni, from who make the Romans Juno .
At the front side the temple has a protruding roof with a flat gable. The roof is supported by a number of Doric pillars with base. A similar temple is portrayed in a relief in Khorsabad at the Euphrat and shows a temple in Urartru, an Atlantean state in Armenia.
The temples are standing on a high rostrum and a staircase is leading up from the front. Obviously an artistically reproduction of the temple mountain of the origin Atlantean town Tharsis with its procession road, which also gave inspiration to the “Zikkurates” of Mesopotamia. The frontal impression is here important and not as at the Greek temple the total construction in all sights.
A further indication for the originally position of the temple, outside of the town ,and its access in form of a procession road. The position of the temple in the town ,can be seen with that, only as a later compromise for reason of security. Rome should later on take again the old idea in the first Etruscan temple on the Capitol Mountain and the to it leading procession road, the “Via Sacra”.
Life sized ,coloured statues of gods and earthen burned reliefs are decorating the gable triangle, the first and the edge of the roof . Friezes with mythical creatures, struggling fighters and dancing and embracing nymphs and silens are decorating the walls. Bright are the colours, red ,white, blue, brown, and purple, are meeting strongly and increase the ecstatic impression of the represented.
Colour painted and decorated with terracotta plates are also the big houses, public houses and seats of the Mighty. The form of the house is the Atrium house, which later on, in Rome ,is the lodging stile of the rich. This form of a house has developed in Asia Minor and Syria, adapted at the climate there.
The organisation of the Town States corresponds to the old Atlantean stile. At the top is the king. Nobility families are the leading class, from which come warriors and priests. The monarchy is hereditary in the beginning, later on, when the nobility got stronger and stronger , the king is elected by the nobility from it for a year.
A considerable weakening of his position, which in the later warring with Rome has a very negative effect. The king is named “Lauchme” in Etruscan language, “Lucumo” in Roman texts. He is porting a diadem of gold, a sceptre, the coat of purple and sits on a throne. Signs of the position, which the whole Occident overtakes later on for their monarch stile. Possibly is also the peculiar German form of address “ Euer Durchlaucht” for high ranged personalities due to the Etruscan “Lauchme”.
As symbol of power about life and death were carried the „fasces“, a bundle of switches in which stuck a doubles axe , in front of the king or put up at his side. The doubles axe is an ancient Atlantean symbol of power which one can find since the first time of Egypt. The bundle of switches is probably an Etrucian addition, possibly as a sign, that the king was not only master of the punishment with death but also of punishment with physical beating, what one can understand as a way to more human execution of a penalty.
This becomes understandable, if one is aware , that the Etruscans came from the Assyrian ruled area, in which every kind of terrible punishment with death was usual. Later on in Rome become the “fasces” the “Bundle of Lictors“ , which as sign of power was carried in front of the current owner of rule. Mussolini took it later on as symbol for his “Black Shirts” and created with that the name “fascist”. This name was soon taken for all radically “Right” organisations.
The clothing of the Etruscans is due to the Atlantean tradition, as this is also known from Phoenicia , extravagant and colourful. The women are carefully hair styled and hanged with valuable jewellery. They wear a tight tailored dress, reaching unto the floor, with belt. Above it, a coat like cover, reaching unto the knees.
The cloth, often richly embroidered and frayed, shines in well adjusted colours. A round or pointed cap covers the head. Similar hats were worn some centuries before by the Hethitian ladies. Men are wearing a knee long belted doublet, the “Tunika”. Above it a coat, draped at the shoulder, the “Tebenna”. It is predecessor of the Roman “Toga”.
Expensive are the shoes of the Etruscans, which reach from light sandals with golden ribbons to tied boots for every day and feasts. As especially smart are regarded shoes with beaks and upper bended points as they are known earlier at the Hethitians.
In the towns is developing a varied commercial economy for the production of all sort of goods. The ceramic industry has an until than in Europe unknown blossoming. Besides earthen dish in numerous forms and decoration, is produced the typical Etruscan black ceramic, remembering at the Boettcher ceramic of Meissen. Under management of a Greek master, produces a manufacture in Caere the Caeretanian Hydrians, big jugs, painted with friezes of animals.
Metal production and working reached a high perfection. About the quality of jewellery was already spoken. Beside this were produced containers from bronze, cast mirrors, engraved containers and boxes, objects of daily use and naturally weapons of all kind.
The good iron, that could produce the Etruscans, equipped as swords, daggers, spear, arrow and lance points soon all people of Italy and over that the whole area of the Mediterranean and gave the base of arms for the wars, which soon Rome brought over the people of the Mediterranean and the Northern Europe.
As at Atlantean people of all times, music plaid a big roll also at the Etruscans in life , at ceremonies and in war. The trumpet, with its clear sound ,was invented by them and used as signal instrument in war. The horn trumpet used later on Rome as preferred instrument of its military music. Also there was a lightly bended horn, a sort of hunting horn and a long crooked horn. As string instruments were known the cithara , with seven strings, and the lyre. For play and dance one used rattles, similar to castanets. The most liked instrument was since old times, so also at the Etruscans , the pipe. Its music accompanied the daily work, sports and even the punishment of the slaves. The pipe play was also in Rome highly estimated and ought not to miss at ritual ceremonies. Even for luring the animals at hunting the charming tone of their pipes was used.
But not only at the sector of culture the country blossomed. The Etruscans were , basing on in millenniums collected agronomic and water engineering experience of the Atlanteans, master in cultivating of all sort of soil. They know canal and tunnel construction and had already in Urartru , Asia Minor and Mesopotamia proved , that they could solve every water engineering problem with high refinement. An art which even the water engineers of today sometimes are not master of, because they have lack of knowledge of the needs of nature. Therefore it would be desirable , that for engineers, who are allowed to make water engineering today ,an additional education in agronomics and forming of landscape should be necessary. The works of water engineering of the Etruscans and other Atlantean people could be even today an object of studies.
To that an example: Near the place ”Ansedonia” of today lays at feet of the steep falling rock the “Tagliatta Etruska”. It is a canal for drainage of the near situated Burano lake, and hinders it becoming a bog. It goes as far as the rock, penetrates it by a tunnel and flows into the sea. This is nothing extraordinary. The shrewdness of the Etruscans was, to hinder a blockage by sand of the outlet , to cut a gigantic barrier out off the rock, through which were driven two additional tunnels. By this order was achieved, that current and countercurrent acted alternately and the canal was never blocked by sand. It fulfils until now since 2200 years its purpose.
The Etruscan agronomic art made it possible, that also from agronomical difficult land could be won rich yield, which not only could provide the own numerous people, but enabled also exports in neighbouring areas. Wide regions at rivers, in valleys and plains, mainly in neighbourhood of the sea the so called ”Maremmen” , were drained at this time. Regions in the hinterland and at mountain slopes became irrigated artificially. A complicated installed system of canals, in which was collected the surplus water, passed through Etruria and later on also Latium. The surplus was after that conducted into the sea.
On the barren soil of the hills in the Maremmen were used the special methods of “dry-farming” of American dry culturing . than already used by the Etruscans. Here you can find, mostly decayed, rests of installations ,with which made the Etruscans the most of the irregular falling precipitations. The in winter falling rain was collected in artificial lakes, which were made waterproof with clay and a little bit added chalk, and lead by in different height installed pipes from burned clay to the vineyards.
One gathered with that marvellous yields. In the Chiana valley ,which was crossed by countless underground and open watercourses, was cultivated the sort of wheat “Spelt”. Besides that men cultivated millet, rye, oats and , as provider for the linen of the textile production, flax. The cultivation of wine, which is famous until now for the Toscana, was introduced by the Etruscans and its product was a high estimated article of export, which was provided as far as the Celtic regions north of the Alps.
Also animal breeding had a blossoming . Horses, similar to the Arabian whole blood, were bread as ride horses and draught horses for the two wheeled biga. With them were made the, at all Atlantean people beloved, car racings. The high grown cattle of the Toscana, with its wide spreading horns, shall be been imported than by the Etruscans from Asia Minor. Sheep and herds of pigs, which grazed in the oak woods, completed the stock of house animals. In the sea one caught the than still numerous tuna.
The towns had profit, as the country , from the water engineering of the Etruscans. Each town had canalisation and wells, which were provided by burned earthen pipe systems with fresh water from rivers or sources. Archaeologists found under many of the old towns, not completely mans height, point arched small walkways, which are crossing and completing and than and now connected by shafts with lower laying similar systems. An even now used technology of construction of canalization and draining, which for insiders is also usable as a system of secret walks.
Differences of height solved the Etruscans by underground pipe systems, with pressure units and siphon, to bring water from large distance to the towns. They surpassed with that the water engineering of the Romans , with their spectacular, but in comparison technically primitive, economically incredible expensive , often disfiguring the landscape, and sensitive for destruction water installations. These water installations must be seen as step backwards of civilization, as many other of Roman “achievements.”
The metal industry of Etruria surpassed all in Europe and Asia Minor known until than. It was, as in all Atlantean states before, the main source of wealth. The rich ore deposits of copper and iron, with high grades of metal, were mined and converted into metal. The melting furnaces are partly still conserved, so that its construction and function is known. They have the form of a truncated cone of nearly 1,80 m diameter, are inside lined with fire resistant bricks and divided by a floor with holes in an upper and bottom chamber. This floor is supported by a pillar from porphyry . In the bottom chamber is a rectangular door, through which can enter the air for burning and come out the molten metal.
The upper chamber was filled with a mix from charcoal and ore, possibly under addition of for the reduction process useful material as limestone, and in the bottom chamber lightened a fire from wood. Through the holes of the floor, the fire entered to the charcoal ore mix and set it into fire. With the developing heat began the process of reduction and melting. The coming out liquid metal flew, through the holes in the floor, into the bottom chamber, and through the door into the open air. By steady refill of charcoal ore mix from above, was a continuous process of metal gaining possible, as in a modern blast furnace. The furnaces were so built, that the in the valley predominating wind strengthened the draught in it, and created so a kind of bellow work, which reinforced the temperature in the furnace. An overheating could be avoided by a reduction of the bottom door opening.
The wood for the charcoal, needed in big quantity, was produced in an efficient wood culture in a rhythm of twenty years. This is known by the examination of left pieces of charcoal ,which all come from trees, having a maximum age of twenty years. So it is understandable, that astonishing quantities of ore could be worked out. The hills of slack at the coast of Elba, provided ,still in the first world war, the Italian iron industry as welcome reserve for warring.
Sporty games and car racing, beginning with religious ceremonies, played , as once in Atlantis , also in Etruria a big roll.
If one compares all parallels with Platons story of Atlantis, one could think, that Platon has described Etruria, if one does not recognize, that at least 500 years of vouched history are laying between these two states. But it is easy to see, that the Etruscans in many aspects followed the well known example of Atlantis and many characteristics, otherwise hardly to understand , are only understandable with that. That concerns before all other, the from them predicted limited existence of their state.
The Etruscan games are depicted on frescos in the grave chambers of Tarquinia and Chiusi and on burial vases from Volterra. All Olympic sorts of sports are shown ,and, beside that, competitions of riders, flat and car racing. Portrayals, rich in details ,are showing competitors, heralds, referees and spectators, between whom are , contrary to Greece , also women with equal rights, as in all Atlantean states.
A further Atlantean speciality of feast should go from the Etruscans to the Romans, and with them into the written history. It is the Atlantean procession, which becomes in Rome the “Triumph”. After victorious campaign, it was organized as gratitude to the gods, and was one of the highlights in the life of every state with Atlantean tradition. The victorious general, in Etruria mostly the king who lead the campaign, wore the regalia of a god. A purple, gold embroidered tunic, a also purple, gold decorated “Tebenna”, gold plated shoes, an ivory sceptre and as the sign of victory, a wreath of laurel. Face and arms were made up with red lead. Lictors with purple tunics formed the point of the procession, followed by men who carried selected pieces of the haul , arms, field signs and precious objects. Guided by servants of the temple, followed the sacrifice animals. White festively decorated steers with gold plated horns. Then followed selected prisoners, who were in the origin form, and sometimes also at the Etruscans and even at the Romans, also sacrificed, but mostly regarded as to precious for that. Than followed servants of the priests, swinging round smoke vessels.
Than came the triumphing general on a splendour car with two wheels, drawn by four white horses. A chorus of kitharists and titirists with body belts and golden bandages around the head strode beside the car. Under them was one man in long purple clothing, festooned with golden arm rings and neck jewellery, who makes ridiculous behaviours to the scorn of the enemy , and should perhaps represent the defeated ruler or general. It follows the long procession of elected warriors of the campaign – in Rome later the victorious legions – with their standards and field signs, interrupted again and again by groups of elected prisoners. The warriors sung alternatively praises and mockery songs about the victor.
Religion plaid a big roll in life of the Etruscans. Also in that, they were right descendents of the Atlanteans. There is in their life no sign of wear and tear of religiosity, as it is known from other cultures of decline. But perhaps it was, for this time, already too much religiosity ,which hindered the life and free development of forces of the individual. The phenomenon “Rome” could show in this direction.
The Atlantean archaic states demanded ones total integration into the life of state , which was far going decided by religion. In Etruria it was , as its last representative, no other. Because of this, many men who disagreed, went to Rome, the town, which was in origin no Etruscan founding of old style. It was even ruled for some time by Etruscan kings, but did not come to know the absolute power of Etruscan priests, which ruled in the old towns. In it lived a spirit more free, and this was for many people reason enough, to settle there.” The air of towns makes free” was in the 19th century the sentence , which lead many people in Europe out off the narrowness and dependence of their villages into towns, and it is pretty imaginable, that Etruscan people said “ the air of Rome makes free”.
But before we will talk about the „Phenomenon Rome“, some about the religion of the Etruscans. Because there is nearly nothing left of the writing concerning the religion, thanks of the thorough destruction work of the Romans, who had at least a bordering to hate aversion to the superior Etruscan culture, it is only possible, thanks the painstaking attention to detail of archaeologists and other scientists, that at 2000 A.C. there has developed a certain picture about it.
Without any doubt, was the Etruscan religion the base for the Italian and later Roman religion. But the complicated cults and rites, which were secret knowledge of the Etruscan priests, were nearly completely lost. Pointing out of the flight of the birds, the look at the liver, the interpretation of lightning, the reading of the Sybellinian Books could even in the prime of Rome only be done by Etruscan priests, and was not further possible when nobody was left of them.
The Etruscan religion is, after the opinion of the responsible scientists, as Jewry, Christianity and Islam a “Religion of the Book “. This “book” consists, as the Holy Bible, out of a collection of books, which called the Romans “Etrusca Disciplina”. The Etruscan name is not known. The in the books contained lessons shall come from the immortal gods. It was probably a collection of the originally oral handed and later on written down old lessons from Atlantean times. After an other source they shall be given from Tages to Tarchon. Tarchon is a mythical character, who at the founding of the oldest Etruscan town Tarquinia, at the ritual ploughing of the founding furrow, rose from the furrow and announced the lessons. This is surely a from priests created myth, to increase the value of the town founding history. The original books, the “libri tagetici“ were in course of the further immigration replenished by others. It was surely further knowledge ,which new immigrating priests brought with them, and was accepted for completeness. In it was the “Lesson of Lightning“, which was ascribed to the nymph Vegoia from Clusium and was probably imported by the group of immigrants, who settled in Clusium. As further creator of lessons is named Cacus. From the „Etruscian Disciplin“ are only maintained fragments. It was, when Rome turned to Christianity, consequently exterminated as superstition .But references to it are often in Roman literature, and so is possible a reconstruction of the framework, although there are missing many details. After Cicero the “Etruscan Disciplin” contained:
1.The books of the Haruspexes (libri haruspicini), Instructions for interpretation of the view of liver, of the flight of birds and other signs of nature.
2. The books of the lightning (libri fulguralis), which contained the interpretation of the lightning , in which the Etruscians distinguished twelve sorts.
3. The books of the rites (libri rituales) which contained the rites of feasts and sacrifices.
To this belonged the “libri acheruntici,” which probably contained the lessons of being after death, the “ostentaria” and the “libri fatales” the books of destiny.
Also to this belonged probably the Sybyllinic Books.
In the “libri fatales” was contained as most known prediction, that the Etruscan state should exist ten ages (saeculi) and than dissolve. This “saeculi” had not the same length, but the end of a saeculum was fixed by the highest priest of Etruria for reason of a special sign, which was seen by him. In practice it was so, that the first three Saeculi lasted 100 years and the following ones continuously shortened, probably for reason of increasing density of important events.
The world of gods of the Etruscans is known mainly from archaeological finds. As very important proved the back side of mirrors of bronze on which were shown mythological scenes and the portrayed gods were even called with their name.
For these mirrors were valuable objects, they escaped the destruction by the Romans and following people. So are known as Etruscan gods.
1.Tin, as god of lightning and upper god. He corresponds to Zeus, Jupiter at the Romans. God of heaven.
2.Turan, Mother god, corresponds to Aphrodite, Venus. Goddess of heaven.
4.Velchans, God of nature and birth
5.Sethlans, corresponds to Hephaistos, Volcanus. God of nature and civilization (bringer of culture)
7.Fufluns, corresponds to Dionysos. God of nature.
8.Laran. God of war.
9.Lethans. God of heaven.
10. Cath or Cautha. God of heaven.
11.Turms. corresponds to Hermes, Merkur. God of heaven.
12. Nethuns, corresponds to Poseidon, Neptunus, God of water
13.Maris, son of Menrva, God of heaven.
14.Menrva. corresponds to Minerva, later on Uni, Astarte. Goddess of heaven.
15. Satre. corresponds to Saturn. God of earth and fertility.
16. Veive. Goddess of heaven
17. Calu. God of underworld.
18. Thanr. Goddess of underworld.
19. Charun. Demon of underworld.
20. Tuchulca. Demon of underworld.
21. Vanth. Female demon.
22. Culan. Female demon.
23. Tages. Bringer of welfare and culture.
24. Hercle. Corresponds to Herakles, Herkules (Melkart in Phoenicia), Bringer of welfare .
to these come from originally Italian source
1. Uni. Corresponds to Hera, Juno, later on Astarte. Goddess of heaven.
2. Ani. Corresponds to Janus. God of heaven.
And from originally Greek influence
1.Ap(u)lu. Corresponds to Apollo. God of heaven.
2. Semla or Semele
3. Castur. Corresponds to Castor.
4. Pultuke. Corresponds to Pollux.
5. Aritini. Corresponds to Artemis.
In practical believe of people, which is supported by finds of sacrificial offering , are playing couples as Maris and Menvra and Hercle and Menvra a bigger roll, besides that a female goddess ( Turan, Artemis or Fortuna) and Fufluns, the Etruscan Dionysos.
This is only a selection , to it comes a row of servant gods as Genius, Leinth and Mean.
One can see, the heaven of gods was richly stocked, what is not at last attributable to the fact, that every immigrating tribe brought his gods under their name with them. Their specific qualities were differently interpreted and understood, what a standardisation even in Etruscian times made a heavy task, as far as there was a need for it.
Because the reader shall not be kept back by the complicated questions of the Etruscian religion, is recommended for interested ones the literature (22) which contains a detailed scientific information of all questions after the knowledge of the year 2000 A.C. by an excellent expert.(in German language)
Here shall only be entered into the numerously indicated relationship of Etruria to Rome, that at last the destiny of the country, its people and its culture sealed.
The founding and the growing of Rome was at last a consequence of the Etruscan expansion.
After the centre land, the Toscana, was settled and developed with the towns of the Etruscan “bundle of the twelve” began the expansion to North, East and South. To North goes the expansion as far as Florence and than into the plain of the Poe as far as Melpum, Acerrae, Mantua, Ravenna and Rimini. At the mouth of the Poe are created the harbour towns Adria, which gives its name to the sea,and Spina.
To South goes the expansion through Latium and the Campagna until the Greek and Carthagean regions of influence ,with its towns Cumae, Paestum and Neapolis ,set their limits. So it ends with the occupation of the towns Capua and Nola. Also Pompeji, Herculaneum and Praeneste, the later Palestrina are belonging to its area. A big and rich country, in which commerce and traffic, music and the fine arts are blossoming.
But in the middle of it is growing something, that some time seems to belong to it, but than goes its own way, and as the egg of a cuckoo developing, shall drive out and at last kill the long established ones. Its name is “Rome”.
Since 483 B.C. begins this, in the beginning relative little town, with warring and conquering one town after the other from the Etruscan “Bundle of the Twelve” . Than it
incorporates it in its own rule. The Etruscan “Bundle of the Twelve”, which was originally an alliance for war and defence, lost in this time increasingly its effectiveness, because some towns refused to help their Allied, until one day they were without help from the other confronted with the again and again strengthened Rome, and lost the battle.
As first town fell after 90 years of warring with Rome, Veji, the town next positioned to Rome. After a passing weakening of Rome after the lost battle against the Celts at the Allia, which was not used by the Etruscans for conquering again Veji , turns Rome against Tarquinia . In to and fro going quarrel, characterized by again and again destruction of the flourishing farming, are Tarquinia and the allied Caere so weakened , that they were eliminated as real adversary of Rome. When now Rome breaks into the peaceful farming regions of the left towns, rises whole Etruria against the aggressor , but this has grown in the meantime so powerful ,that he can meet also the allied army. Enormous losses in the following battles are weakening both sides, but at last stays Rome by skilful tactics in advantage against the Etruscan troops. 308 B.C. is made an armistice of one year .
After that continues the quarrel. By and by are implicated in the North the Celts and Umbreans and in the South the Samnitans and Volskans. Finally calls the in trouble coming Tarent even the Greek king of Epire, Pyrrhos ,for help and he defeats the Roman under enormous losses for both sides. But he is alone to weak, to conquer Rome and the towns of Latium ,on the help of which he had hoped, are denying this.
So passes Rome again and can return to Etruria. As last town is now attacked the at the Bolsena Lake lying capital of the alliance, Volsinii, which houses the Etruscan shrine of the Bundle, and at last conquered. The town is totally plundered and equalized to the ground. Its rests were discovered only in 1946.
130 years after beginning its attack against Etruria with the war against Veji, Rome finishes it with the destruction of Volsinii.
But the once flourishing and economically rich country was only a shadow of itself. Three towns Veji, Roselle and Volsinii were completely extinguished. The agricultural installations of whole Etruria were wide going destructed and were not reconstructed, because men were missing and knowledge of them was lost. Similar it was with the once flourishing industry of metal and ceramics. Rome had shown at the example of Etruria, how it would act in future in countries which resisted to its demand for rule.
But the achievements of culture of Etruria were predominantly not lost. Rome had come from it and spread them over the whole area of the growing Roman empire. So came into life the impression ,that Rome was the culture bringer for at least the western part of Europe.
Atlantean Tradition at the Celts of the Islands.(8c)
by Karl Juergen Hepke
The Celts are the first people north of the Alps, from who are existing written reports. Therefore they seem to be especially suited to give information about early times in this area. One identifies the Celts today without exception after their language and their culture, not on the base of any distinguishing features of body or race. They were, for reason of their long history of moving, which had lead them deep into Asia, a coloured mix of all people living between Atlantic and India, in which the originally in the West living formed the majority. This majority was supported by the parts of people, which rested in the country, mixed up with the in some waves returning emigrants.
One is supposing today, that before the emigration after the Atlantean catastrophe of 1250 B.C. existed a “Common Celtic”, understood by all people. It divided later into two different dialects , of which the “Goidelic” ore “Gaelic”, spoken from the Britain Islands to Iberia, is the older one. The continental Celts developed than, after this theory , a variation, named “Brythonic”. This spread later to Brittany and replaced there the “Goidelic”.
Perhaps the users of the Brythonic dialect belonged to a later wave of immigrants, which poured over their previous areas of settlement and imposed their language, where they were in majority. To the today existing Celtic languages are counted the Old Irish, the Manx of the Island of Man, the Scottish Gaelic , the Welsh, the Cornish and the Breton.
In course of the sixth century B.C. , when the climate changed again to warm and dry, the tribes, which were called later on “Celts”, like their northern neighbours, which were called later on “Teutons” migrated again to Europe and spread in all until than only sparely inhabited areas. Besides the change of climate also the political condition in their settling areas, to which belonged the area of Near Orient, which suffered under the actions of resettlement and terror of the state of Assur , can have been the reason for the backward migration . One moved from the terror by emigration and the loss of population lead to the decline and disbanding of the state of Assur.
In the fifth century B.C. reached the first tribes North Italy, where they met the Etruscans. At 474 B.C. they defeated the Etruscans near the river Tessin and spread than into the North Italian deep plain. Their conflict with the Etruscans lead to an ask for help to Rome, which treated the Celts very scornfully. The infuriated Celts defeated the Romans in two battles and conquered and plundered Rome. Only the hill of the Capitol, which was made a fortress, remained in Roman hand. From the occupation of Rome by the Celts the Romans had to liberate themselves by an enormous sum of money.
So here rose an “animosity from the beginning” and all Roman writers , except those of Celtic origin, told in following times only scornful and negative from the Celts. All reports by the Romans about Celtic customs and equipping have to be seen and rated under this aspect.
Also Greek people had to suffer under the raids of the Celts. The Macedonians were defeated and also an army consisting of contingents of all Greek city states at the Thermopyles. After that, the Celts plundered the temple of Pythia in Delphi, the richness of which had obviously lured them. The here conquered treasures the Romans found later on at Toulouse. So they gained also at the Greeks no sympathies and came into the reputation of “Barbarians”, what means their name ”Keltoi” in Greek language , becoming later on their peoples name.
The courage and bravery of the Celts was proverbial in antique world . They gave mercenaries to Egypt, Syracuse and Carthage. Primary as warrior on horseback they were highly estimated. Probably a heritage of parts with Skythian past. They had like the Indians a caste of warriors, the “Gaesatae” with own rituals. These fought naked , because they thought , their Karma could than better develop and in the case of death the reincarnation was accelerated. In Irish mythology exists this military caste still as ”warrior from the red branch” and as ”Fianna”, warriors ,who guarded the High King. Beside the caste of warriors existed, similar to India of the “Vedic time”, the class of the Educated, called “Druids” at the Celts, the class of producers of goods and the class of serving and working manually people.
Later on, in the time of codification of the Irish system of rights, which based on the old order, were existing five classes:
1. The kings and tribe chiefs
2. The Educated and higher professional groups.
3. The fonctionnaires and judges
4. The clan belonging, who cultivated the land and gave military service in time of war
5. Those , who had no civil rights: criminals, working at their penalty , prisoners of war and hostages.
Here should not be spoken about the long lasting quarrels of the Celts with the Romans. They could be read in every book of history. At last Rome had conquered the whole Celtic area of settling except the island of Ireland and the northern area of the British island and ruled there until the introduction of Christianity as religion of state . The not Roman occupied areas staid in old believe until the fifth century. Than Christianity spread also here. Promoted was this spreading by former priests of the old religion, that is the Druids, who had recognized Christianity as agreeable religion for themselves , which based at least on their believe and in which they thought to can teach their familiar ideas again.
This was an error, which should lead early or later to conflicts with in other parts of the Roman empire, as in Alexandria and Rome , sitting ecclesiastical authorities.
Who were really the “Druids”?. Their name is derived today unanimously from “dru-vid”, what means ”strong or all”=dru und “see”=vid ( the Latin stem from videre = see). That means, the Druid is somebody, who can see all. Today one would describe him or her as a highly educated person with prophetic abilities. The Druid can be man or woman. There is no difference. The Druids felt, like the old Atlanteans , themselves as successors of the Gods and as guardians of the knowledge, received from them.
This knowledge should be passed by celestial order only orally to persons, selected by the druids. It must be learned by memory, what lead to times of education on to twenty years. This reports Caesar, who was as Roman and war leader against the Celts not very reliable in his statements about the adversary. More particular about the education is later on to see in the codification of the Irish Brehon laws, which based on the old order.
After this required the reaching of the highest degree of education at least twelve years. The first degree was reached in two years. It was called ”fochluc” because its art was so little as a twig “Fochlacan” (veronica). After three years reached the pupil “mac fuirmid”. In the fourth he was called °dos”= “young tree”. In the fifth he was called “cana” and in the sixth ”cli” after ”cleith” the plinth of a house.
With that, the basic training was reached, and passed now to a study of a couple of years. At passing all examinations he could reach after one to three years the degree “anruth”= “noble creek” and after twelve years he became “ollamh”= “professor”. In every art or profession the “ollamh” was the highest reachable degree. A builder of houses was called so as a goldsmith, jurist, doctor or judge.
In the six or seven centuries of migration of the Atlantean tribes through Europe and Asia under often difficult conditions was surely the class of the “Educated” difficult to conserve. Surely in this time ,for the Celtic and Teutonic tribes, much of the knowledge of natural sciences, that brought to blossom the Atlanteans in Babylon and India, was lost as not so important , as far as this was also known by these tribes. What was not lost, was the knowledge of religious matters, the matters of right, of medicine, of history and “literature” of the people, things, which were daily asked by them and formed their position in the community.
So is to explain. that after resettling Druids made journeys through different Celtic countries to replenish their knowledge, which they thought to be only fragments, at Druids of other countries or in “Druid schools” , existing for example in Brittany. Additionally one can suppose, that in some areas ,and to this one can tell the British Islands , in the population, which had not participated the emigration, were also Druids, who had conserved the old knowledge, and were now an important source for the returning Druids.
This could also explain, why in the language group of the Island Celts are contained Hamito-Semitic elements, which are existing also in Hebrew, Aethiopian and Old-Egyptian , languages, which come from the Old-Atlantean language. This “old-fashioned” language was probably conserved also at the on the Islands remaining people.
Which are now the important lessons and customs of Druidic and with that traditional Atlantean knowledge ?
A. The lessons.
1. The human soul is indestructible. After death it goes to an “Other-world” and returns from it in a reincarnation .That is another birth in a new life on earth. This lesson is in principle according to the lessons of India and can with that be taken for common Atlantean heritage.
2. World is indestructible also if temporary water or fire are dominant. Here speaks the direct experience with two dramatic events , namely the impacts of meteorites at 1250 B.C. and 8500 B.C. and the recovery after the catastrophes and shows, how Celtic men were aware of these happenings .
3. Men have a free will and are neither dependent to an original sin nor to a predestination in their decisions. He decides alone how he fulfils his Karma. How we will see ,was pre programmed in this point the conflict with the Roman church.
4. For men with knowledge and capable of insights, the will of God is to recognize in signs in nature. It is therefore possible for him, to predict future events or developments with high probability. The evidence for this assertion have shown many Druidic predictions.( After the fire of the Capitol of Rome they predicted ,300 years before it happened in reality, the decline of Rome and the following rule of people, living north of the Alps.)
B. The special customs.
5. The Druids worshipped the woods and groves and thought them to be holy. They had a special worship for the oak. The mistletoe that grows on it had a special meaning and was cut at special times. The teaching of the pupils of Druids happened preferably in holy groves.
6. The Druids came together at certain days at central meeting places, which laid with priority in the middle of the prevailing area of settlement, to give the same length of way to all, coming to the meeting. This place was thought to be holy and was defended especially hard in the case of penetration of foreign armies .
7. Their oral tradition was so good, that the Druids in the year 69. A.C knew exactly the victory of the Celts about the Romans at the 18th of July 390/387 B.C.
8. The Celts cultivated mainly no cereal but lived from milk products and meat from cattle breeding .
9. They possessed a script which was called “Ogham ”and was used for writing of orders and laws on stones. This is corresponding to a custom spread at all people, coming from Atlantean origin and reaches from the Egyptians over Hammurabbi at Babylon , Ashoka in India to Moses at the mountain of Sinai.
10. They used a mystic of numbers in which plaid the number” Three” a special roll. Other important numbers were the five, the nine as three times three and the thirty three. The three went as Trinity into the Heaven of Gods of the Celts and later on of Christianity.
C. The roll of women.
Contrary to the cultures of Greek and Romans women had much more rights at the Celts. They could practise all professions, also that of a Druid, ruler or warrior. In Celtic history there are many famous examples as Macha Mong Ruadh (377-331 B.C.), Cartimandua (43-69 A.C.), Boadicea (around 61 A.C.), Chiomara (around 189 A.C.). The Irish Brehon system of rights saw women as lawyers and judges (e. g. Brigh as famous Brehon judge.)
Women could take up the succession of princes and kings and gain with that the highest authority, while the normal was the male succession. The woman could inherit property and to her belonged further all goods, that she has brought into the marriage. She could at divorce obtain all what has given her husband as present to her.
Divorces were possible as from side of the woman as the mans side. If a man has dishonoured himself and sunk to the lowest class , concerned that not the position of his wife. The woman was only responsible for her own debts, not for that of her husband.
If one compares this system with that ,what is now practised in most western states and has its origin in Roman right, it appears really as the more modern and practicable. For it avoids the catastrophic effects of such “modern” achievements as liability in family, equalization of accrued gains, statutory equalization of pensions and maintenance payment, which often is leading to the ruin of the concerned ones.
The difference in the two legal systems is before all founded in the fundamental view of the roll of women in society. In the Celtic and Vedic-India , that means in the original Atlantean system, she was completely acknowledged equal to the man. In the Roman system she is regarded as subordinated, less qualified, and therefore in need of protection. This lives since the time of Roman rule, in spite of all lip-service to equal-rights, still in the head of men and is refreshed again and again by conservative institutions, as the Christian church. One must although see, that also in India women lost more and more their rights and also at the Celts in the course of history, that means in Christian times, many rights of women got lost.
About the world of Gods here will be reported especially about that of the Celts of the islands, because the heaven of Gods of the Celts of the continent was much influenced by the early integration into the Roman area of culture. Besides this were introduced many Gods of nature at the Continental Celts as the Island Celts in the long time of migration and the intensive quarrel with nature. They will be less respected here ,because especially the Atlantean tradition shall be regarded . The Druids of the Celts of the islands saw their Gods as their predecessors, they had still the opinion of them as in Atlantean times all Atlantean people.
A God which is found in many names is Bel. His name is also Bile , what in names of today gets often Bille, Belem or Belenus. He gave the name to the “Belemnites”
the “ wedge of thunder” which are found as stoned rests of squids in much lime stones in Europe. He corresponds to the Canaanitic Baal, who is in the Holy Bible the older God of the in Canaan living people and to Jave, the God of the Jews, successful in concurrence. After Caesar he is “Dis-pater”, that is progenitor of the Celts.
A further God is Lugh, Llew in Welsh, Lugus in Gallic. After him are named Lyon, Leon, Loudan, Loudun, Laon in France, Leiden in Holland, Liegnitz in Schlesien, today Poland. Lughnasad at the beginning of August , the old harvest feast for the cereal, is his holyday. In Irish he is still known as Lunasa, at Man as Luanistyn and in Scotland as Lunasad or Lammas feast. In the areas of early Christianity, where one was very sensitive to heathen customs and had assistance in power of the state in form of the Roman empire, was this holyday obliterated because of its rite of death- and resurrection as heathen and Lugh was because of his way into underworld even identified with the devil.
The God Taran, Tyr, Thor, Donar, a God of thunder, gave his name to Tours, Tauran and Thouars in France, Tyrus in Canaan, Tarquinia in Etruria, Tharsis in Andalusia and Tarent in South Italy.
The tendency of the Celts, to worship their Gods as trinity was already mentioned. This seems to be an Indo European tradition. At the Hindus consists the ”Trimurti” in Brahma, the creator, Vishnu, the protector and Shiva ,the destroyer. At the Greek in Zeus (heaven) ,Poseidon (sea) and Pluto (underworld). There are existing three goddesses of fate, three furies, Three Graces, three times three Sibyllinic Books, three times three Muses. Men consist in the trinity of body, soul and spirit and the by them inhabited world in earth, sea and air.
The Celts saw nature as animal, vegetarian and mineral, the cardinal colours were Red, Yellow and Blue. The Gods were worshiped in threefold form and their trinity went after groundwork of the early Church Fathers and the Greek ,through a Gallic Celt, the bishop of Tours, Hilarius (around 315-367 ) with his work “ De Trinitate” as Father, Son and Holy Spirit into Christian Faith. Later on became this in Catholic practise of worshiping the trinity: Father God as Creator and Master of World, Christ as master of Earth and Maria as mother and virgin goddess. With that one returned de facto to the old Atlantean and Canaanitic trinity El, Baal and Astarte, under new names.
As one can see, necessities of worship have a considerable ability of remain , what does not really speak against them. More clearly as in the world of Gods, their names and functions, is expressed their Atlantean heritage in the holydays of the Celts. Obviously holydays have a much better ability of remain as with them connected Gods or events. So it is explainable, that even Christian Church has obtained these holydays, in which sometimes the contents were changed, what does not prevent people from cultivating the old contents until today.
The most sinister, but also most impressive holyday is Samhain, the feast of the deceased in the night to the first of November . In this time the separation to the world of the deceased is less existent and often becomes blurred like the world, lying in fog. The souls of the deceased get in connection to the living and fill them with fear or trust. Men hollow out pumpkins and cut in it shocking faces ( the highest Druidic symbol for protection) and lighten it from inside with a candle, to frighten unwelcome souls. In Celtic influenced countries is this holyday until now celebrated as Halloween. From Christian Church it was taken over as All Souls Day.
The next old Atlantean holyday, documented in many megalithic stone settings and celebrated further by the Celts, is the solstice of winter, now at the 21ce of December, in the time of the old Celts at the 24th of December. It is the birthday of the God of sun, who gets than more and more power . It is celebrated with fire or with much light in form of candles or torches. In its course all light is extinguished and new lightened. House and court are cleaned with smoke. Christian Church has taken it as Christmas and the birth of Jesus , which was in reality in spring , put here.
The next holyday is Imbolc , the feast of purification and fertility in the time around the beginning of the month of February. It is the holyday between the rebirth of the light and the manifestation of life. The days get longer, one can go without candle light. “Imbolc” means “in the womb”. The new life is still in the bowels of the earth but begins to show itself.
In this time began in the old cultures , as still now in the Chinese, the new year. In the old Atlantean influenced cultures of Mesopotamia, as in Babylon and Assyria and Egypt it was celebrated as the beginning of the new year and biggest festivity in the course of the year and was joined with extensive cults of fertility. This holyday was accepted from the Christian church as Candlemas . With respect only to the moral acceptable return of the light, not the fertility cults. These found its rebirth in the modern “carnival” at the same time.
It follows in the round of the holydays the equality of day and night of spring. Also this day is documented in stone settings of Atlantean times. At the Celts it is the feast of the birds. One goes out and looks for migratory birds. Are they seen ,one has a party and eats with relish. Its symbols are hares, swallows and eggs, which are now connected with Easter . It is in Atlantean times the special day of Ostara or Aschera or Astarte, as she is called in the East, the goddess of love and fertility. It is the holyday of the rebirth of nature from the deadly death of winter. Water scooped at Easter has curing and strengthening effects.
It follows a holyday, which was not taken by Christian church but in contrary was damned because of the in it practised unrestraint behaviour. It is the feast “Beltane”, that was celebrated in the night to the first of May and is still today, apart from ecclesiastical area, often celebrated as “Dance into May. ”At the Celts it is the feast of fire and flowers.
In Atlantean times it was the first big holyday of May, when all people arrived “at the stones” and ceremonial rites of sacrifice were celebrated by the priests . Afterwards followed a common big meal and a festival of love, where one was dancing naked or half naked around the fire. Beltane is the transition from spring to summer and means something like “shining fire” or “fire of Bel”. It is the feast of purification (fire) and fertility, the time of strength and maturity. Bel or Belenos is the Celtic God of the light, but in his origin he is the Canaanitic Baal, the”Sir”, who became in the nature orientated world of the Celts the God of the Sun. From Christian church the feast was degraded to “Walpurgis night” and declared , that in this night the” witches and the devils” with which were meant the fans of the old believe, were dancing together.
The now following solstice of summer has in the Nordic countries much taken from Beltane. The customs of fire and love, to which nobody would abstain ,were put here in moderate form. Also at the Celts it was in respect of the course of sun a feast of the fire. Until now, wheels ,set in fire , are rolled down the hills and torches are swung in circle as symbol of the sun. For “purification” couples are jumping together through the fire.
In the circle of the year follows the holyday of fertility and harvest, Lughnasad, which is celebrated after the first of August. It is the first of the thanks giving feasts for a good harvest and vowed to the divine child “Mabon” which goes down to the underworld to get rebirth . Here is found in the Celtic still the Atlantean or Canaanitic tradition, as it is written in the myths of Ugarit. These myths and meanings were sinister to the Christian church and they made from the Celtic harvest holyday Lughnasad a day of misfortune, at which Lucifer was thrown into hell.
As Beltane, was this holyday because of disagree with Christian faith condemned and fought. Because people had a requirement for a holyday at this time, put the Catholic Christian Church to the fifteenth of August the holyday of “Ascension of Maria”. The descent into the under earth lying world of death became ascent into heaven. Now was Jesus, as only on Earth working Christian God, already gone to heaven at Whitsun. So rested only, giving divine qualities to the mother of God and let her go to heaven at this day.
As one can see, priests of all times found a way out of a seeming dilemma, in which they respected even the old tradition. This behaviour and the with that joined bending of religion after request, was although a horror for Protestant purists, who never established such a holyday. The farmers had to see, how they put their customs to harvest feasts with not embarrassing worldly context.
An interesting speciality of Celtic tradition was the swear “We will keep word , except the heaven collapses and shatters us, the earth opens and devours us or the sea goes over its borders and overwhelms us”. At a question of Alexander the Great ,what feared the Celts, they answered seriously: “ We only fear that heaven falls on our heads”, what rose in Alexander the opinion, that the Celts had a very high view of themselves. But in both sentences is only expressed the memory at two “ends of the world” which were good remembered at the Celts because of their already mentioned good oral tradition of history. These catastrophes had made all vows and rules obsolete. The Greek without good tradition and also the Romans had no idea of this and thought such sentences as extreme arrogance.
With the introduction of Christianity disappeared the prohibition of writing of texts and so is a big part of the knowledge in the 3. and 4. century in written form still existent. But these texts, like older writings in the Ogham script, were burned as “heathen knowledge “ by overeager Christians when they found it. Even the famous Irish bishop Patrick shall have burned in the 9. century with missionary zeal 180 books with druidic knowledge. Nevertheless survived many and was edited in collections again and again, so in the “Leabhar Buidhe Lecain”, “The yellow book of Lecon “ that was put together around 1400.
After the introduction of Christianity in Ireland tried the former Druids, who now were called philosopher, to let flow their traditional ideas into the lessons of the church.
They found themselves in agreement with the theories of the Greek philosopher Pythagoras, who had these, like the after him named theorem of mathematic , taken from the Atlanteans in Persia and developed further. To that exists the report of the Greek historian Strabo, who tells, that a Druid named Abaris made a journey to Pythagoras at Athens , to dispute with him, and has made an excellent impression. After the original source was Abaris no Celt but a “Hyperborean” belonging to legendary people, living in the North, where are dominating ice and snow. To that is to say, that the Greek, in contrary to the Roman, were always bad informed about their northern and western neighbours.
Certain guaranteed is although the quarrel, which had the Celtic church philosopher Pelagius Brito (around 354 to 420) with the authorities of the Roman church. He travelled around 380 to Rome and was horrified about the loose moral of the Christians there. In public he made responsible for that the lesson of Predestination and the doctrine , that man since the “Fall” is stained with the original sin ,which both were supported by the than living church teacher Augustinus in publications.
Pelagius in contrary supported the Druidic opinion, that man can gain the welfare by his own doing and rejected strictly the predestination. By this he had himself created in Augustinus a bitter enemy. Augustinus tried to accuse Pelagius for heresy and persecuted him in the council of Jerusalem in June 415 and in the synod of Diospolis, in which participated fourteen bishops, without gaining a condemnation of the opinions of Pelagius, which this had supported in further publications ” about the free will”.
Disappointed, Augustinus turned to the bishops of Carthage and Milevius, who went to see the pope of that time, Innozenz I.. Innozenz felt flattered , that African bishops , who otherwise did not ask for his opinion, made him to judge. As requested ,he convicted Pelagius. But his successor Zosimus cancelled the conviction, after he had gained more information about the lessons of Pelagius. Augustinus than turned in a fury to the Roman Emperor Honorius (395 – 423) and persuaded him to confiscate all property of Pelagius . Zosimus saw himself in danger and spoke now also against Pelagius.
The quarrel in the Church went to and fro for a long time. The Church of the East empire took over the condemnation of the “Pelagianism” only in 431. In the Celtic church it survived still for a long time and was therefore again explicit condemned in the second council of Orange. Eriguena “ the in Ireland born” attacked again in 850 the predestination of Augustinus and was for it condemned in two synods in 855 and 859. In spite of that, he published further and is today seen as the most important philosopher between Augustinus and Thomas of Aquin.
So the attempt of getting influence to the basics of Christianity by the Celtic Druids was not always successful. More success had the Celts in keeping their system of rights , which came in its origin from Atlantean times and was very different from the Roman right. The Irish right is so the oldest completely conserved
“Codex of Right” of Europe. After the Irish myth issued the Irish High King for consolidation of his rule laws in the year 714 B.C. ( that is before the immigration of the returning tribes) and designed a system of rights. He founded the “Feis Temhrach” the feast of Tara, that happened every three years , on which were discussed and reversed laws. If this is right, or only a myth , must not be discussed, for the feast existed still in historic times and fulfilled its task.
Probably the most famous of these conferences for right happened at 697 A.C. On it issued Adamnan, the abbot of Iona the “law of the innocents” which forbid to do in the times of war something to old men, women, children and “men, belonging to the clergy”, that means everybody , who was not warrior. This was far ahead of its time and in some way a forerunner of the “Convention of Geneva” ,which was only decided at the end of the nineteenth century. This law was binding in Ireland and the kingdom of the Picts and Scots and at its resolution were witnesses 51 kings and chiefs and 40 deputies of the church.
The carrying out of the laws was at first given to the ”fili”, the poets, a branch of the Druids. At the occasion of a quarrel under the “fili”, became evident, that these argued so pompously, that nobody, even not the king, understood them. Therefore it was decided, to give the matters of right from the “fili” to special judges and that the professions of right should be open to all, who brought with them the necessary preconditions.
With that was created a new class of judges, who were called “Brehon”. The Brehon laws should serve” to make good the injustice for the people and to protect the weak and poor “. The judges should quote at their sentence a “fasach”, a precedent or a maxim of right. Everybody ,who did not recognize a decision was outlawed and “should not be paid either by God nor by hand of men”. This outlawing or expel from society was corresponding to old Atlantean tradition and was a very hard punishment, for a life without community was practically not possible in this time. The Outlaw was forced to emigrate, to find elsewhere a new community, which accepted him.
In the fifth century, when Christian ideas was added to Roman right , must be revised also the Brehon rights. The revision was made by nine prominent people, from who were three Christians. The new right was codified in the “Senchus Mor” . It was called Cain Law and was binding for the whole country. Later on followed in the “Book of Acail “ the Irish criminal law. The language of these books was archaic and show, how old the Brehon laws were. Both works of right survived in the “Leabhar nah Vidre”, the book of the “Dark Coloured Cow” of the 11. and 12. century. They were, whenever adapted again and again ,used till the seventh century ,when under Cromwell all Irish was suppressed and replaced by English.
Like the system of right had the Irish tradition of history an independent form, which reached back to Atlantean times. So reports Timagenes, who lived in the first century A.C . in Alexandria, that the Druids carried on the keeping of history. From the exact memory of the conquest of Rome was already spoken. The Roman Celtic author Livius (59 B.C. until 25 A.C) and Cornelius Nepos (around 100 until 5 B.C.) came probably from the class of Druids. The old Irish form of tradition of history consisted in a mix of prose and verse for the dialogues .The verses were learned by heart and the prose was added by the narrator as joining text in general sense.
The skeleton of verses caused, that the narrator could not deviate too much from the story, The free text gave the possibility ,to add own and fitting to the moment thoughts, and make by this the story more interesting for the listeners. Also from the Veda of India and the Ilias and Odyssee of Homer in Greece is known this form of tradition of history.
The historian called “ollamh” must possess after the Senchus Mor a special formation in Chronology , Synchronism, Archaeology and Genealogy. He has to know by heart at least 350 historical reports and love stories and recite them instantly on demand. Further he had to know exactly all privileges and rights of the High King and all little kings. If he does not fulfil these preconditions, he was not allowed as reporter and was not legitimated to sell his works.
The name of the male historian was now ”Seanchai” . This means also in today Irish :” Keeper and narrator of History”, Every chief had a Seanchai for the keeping of the history of his lineage. Since Christian times this happened also in written form and was done until the 17. century, when the English did away with the Irish customs and destroyed most of the writings. In this time was also shattered the indigene intelligence or driven into exile. Representatives of the last generation of historians were Dubhaltach Mac Firbisigh (1585-1670) and Seathrun Ceitinn (around 1570 until around 1649) who both found their death through the soldiers of Cromwell .
Ceitinn describes on the basis of a much older source the tasks of the Seanchai also as that of a war reporter. Every captain had a standard with his own sign (an Atlantean custom, which becomes clear in the finds of Lurestan and found itself again in the banners of regiments of the later European armies) so that the Seanchai, whose duty was, to assist the chiefs, when they rushed into the battle, could recognize every unit. The Seanchai had to notice the performance of the fighters, to give later a report of their “big contributions” in the battle.
Similar is also known from the Atlantean tradition in the “Vedic -Time “(1000-500 B.C.) of India. There was a class of poets of the court (sutas) who were also charioteer of the fighter and his friend and praised the actions of the fighter after the battle. (Today one would call them perhaps “manager” of the fighter). In the Rigveda they are called ” marasani “ “praise of the fighter”. In the Irish legends are corresponding Cuchulain and Loeg Mac Riangabra to this sight.
When in 1932 in the Academy Francaise was given a report with the title” The courtly poetry of Ireland and Wales” was sitting Sylvain Levi, one of the greatest experts of Sanskrit, in the audience. He was delighted so much from the explanations, that he wrote a letter to the reporter Joseph Vendryes, in what he said: The Celtic history is” nearly a chapter from the history of India under other name”. A beating evidence for the homogeneity of Atlantean tradition at two parts of earth so much distant and with that a proof , that the Atlanteans were representatives of a high culture and not a big crowd of barbarians , as which are parts of them sometimes still regarded.
A similar phenomenon is existent in the Irish music. Classical authors report, that the Celts possessed lyras .drums, pipes and other instruments. At ceramic is reproduced a lyra . A good conserved trumpet was found in the county of Armagh in Ireland. After Greek and Roman authors vocal music and dancing was very popular. Dancing figures are found on ceramic and bronze reproductions.
The first notes from Ireland come from the twelfth century. Until than many had changed under Christian influence. One has to go back to the music of folk, to have an impression of the beginnings. Music scientists believe , to find in the Scan-nos-form of singing, which is conserved especially in Conamara ,similarity to Indian music. This concerns especially the ornamentation of singing.
The Irish composer Sean O Riada ( 1931-1971) began after his studies of serial music in Paris to collect this music and he succeeded in opening a living cultural tradition, which was until than completely unknown in Europe. The Greek composer Christos Pittas, who knew similar music from the former Atlantean settling room in Thrakia ( West Turkey) ,said to that in 1971, that the development of an own music with distinctive individuality and deepness is only owned by great cultures ,to which in this case is to be told also the Celtic (Atlantean).
Like the Irish system of rights, was also highly developed the Irish medicine system and was nearly equal to that, known from India. As known also from middle Europe of the time of bronze, there existed also in Ireland the trepanation , that is the operation of the skull, after in battle arose injury of the head. The knowledge of medicinal herb had a high degree and it should be known 365 medicinal herbs. Surgery made transplantations for example of an eye and replaced hands, lost in battle, by prosthesis from silver or by transplantation . The first Irish hospital is said after oral tradition to the queen Macha Mong Ruadh , who died in 377 B.C. There are here similar dates for the first hospitals as known from India. In the beginning of Christian time, they were found all around the country. They were partly already specialized for certain disease (e. g. leprosy). In the 8. and 9. century the Irish medicine schools had great reputation in Europe. When was codified the system of rights, there was a high-quality, progressive medicine system, that based on the traditional knowledge of the Druids.
In the Brehon system of rights was guaranteed nursing to all those in need, to it belonged beside the nursing also financial help and nourishing food. If the illness was caused through action of an other person , this had to pay the costs, This was also valid for employers, who were supposed to greed for profit. The medical practitioner had full responsibility for the treatment of a patient and had to give compensation in the case of false treatment. Every doctor had the duty to train four students of medicine, what made possible the intern control of the knowledge of the doctors. The responsible clan had to take care that every doctor had enough time and opportunity for further education. There existed real families of doctors in which the profession was hereditary and that in books written down knowledge was passed from father to son. Each region must have a hospital ,to which existed exact instructions about position and construction .It had for example to be positioned at a flowing water and must have four doors.
When the English in 17. century suppressed the Irish schools of medicine and destroyed the class of intellectuals, many doctors emigrated to the European continent and were there highly respected. At least not for this is conserved the Irish doctor literature from the time before the 18. century and waits for an editor. It is to expect that comes to light astonishing about the extensive knowledge of this old culture, which reaches without break until Atlantean times. Perhaps are in it contained methods and knowledge, which is new for the medicine of today.
The special abilities of the Celtic Druids at the matters of predicts was already mentioned. Like the Etruscans, they used for that the flight of the birds or predicted from the innards of sacrifice animals. Also dream interpretation was practised . The content of truth is, as known, heavy to check up and good prophets made their predicts so, that they fitted for each end.
More useful and correct were in contrary the predicts and calculations of the Celtic astrologers. They possessed a calendar , which is dated for the first century B.C. but is possibly much older and is called Coligny calendar . It surpasses widely in exactness the Julian calendar , which was introduced in Rome at the time of Caesar. It consists in a cycle of five years in which the phases of the moon are matching the sun year. There are 62 month following each other of 29 or 30 nights, for at the Celts began the day with beginning of the night , that is with sunset. This explains probably also, why the places of assembly of the Atlanteans in Brittany are all directed to West, to sunset and is pointing out, that this calendar is probably much older. Just as the fact, that the seasons are playing a subordinated roll in this cycle of five years.
Probably was the settling region of the inventors of the calendar in an area, were the seasons had little effect to the climate and plaid a little roll for life. This could fit for example North Africa or the sunken Atlantis I in the middle of the Atlantic. In this case it is even possible that for reason of the not yet moved poles around 9000 B.C. there were no distinct seasons and the course of the sun was only shown in the change of the constellation of the stars. This would explain the strong interest of the priests of all old cultures at astronomy, for only with its help were perceptible higher time cycles as the sun year.
An age had 6 cycles of time and after the understanding of time of today 30 years. Also the Etruscans counted their time after ages (saeculi) One week consisted at the Celts of 9 nights and the month of 3 weeks. The resulting 27 nights-cycle corresponds to the 27 constellations of the moon cycle , which are in Indian mythology the 27 women of Soma the moon. The moon has obviously in the calendar technology of very old times a bigger roll as the sun. So were obviously, as already told, at old Sumer and Egypt the years not counted after the sun but after the moon cycle and are to divide with 13 to get to our counting of time.
Science of today is not conclusive, if the Celts got their astrological knowledge from the Babylonians. Probably scooped both from old Atlantean knowledge and developed two different branches. Finally lived the Celts in an area with the biggest and full of information stone settings of the Atlanteans, as Stonehenge, and the with them joined astrological knowledge was certainly conserved over a long time in oral and later written form by the Druids. So was not known until the 17.century the term “Zodiac”. It was used an own word “reithes grian” which means “sun wheel”. In Indian Sanskrit it is named “rasai chakra” , “wheel of constellations”. Also there is in old Irish a word for “Horoscope” :”fuis-mea” which means “beginning” (fuismed). In Scottish Gaelic is poetically called the Horoscope “ To set the foundation after the stars”.
It should not be entered further into the astronomical and astrological knowledge of the Celts and especially of the Irish, because this is nearly a subject of its own. It is in any case certain, that astronomical and astrological knowledge of high level was existent and Astrology was used until the 14.century for fixing of suitable moments for special actions. Since this time indigene Astrology mixed up with Babylonian one, imported by the Arabs ,so that the origin is not unambiguously to detect.
Also magical abilities were said in old tales to the Druids. So they could produce a fog, which withdraw towns, countryside or men from the look of the enemy. They could change their figure and transform men into animals. They could generate a Druidic sleep, which was similar a hypnotic state, in what men revealed the truth. They possessed also the “ Drink of Forgetting” under the effect of which men forgot their nearest friends and beloved. These capabilities do not impress us nowadays. Our modern technology and medicine is able to perform more, remarkable is anyhow , that also this field, with which one can produce much impression, was already mastered in high degree.
Summarizing one can say, that at the Celts and especially these, who lived undisturbed at the islands, astonishing much is conserved of the knowledge of the old Atlantean high culture and was handed down, in spite of all attempts of destruction , until our time.
The continuous Life of the Idea of the Atlantean Empire
by Karl Juergen Hepke
The idea of the Atlantean empire , that is, an empire in which all men can live and be happy in peace and mutual respect after distinct divine rules, in which trade and exchange are in blossom and a strong, good stabilised state is guarding peace and the right of everybody, has mankind not left , since this empire existed once on earth, , and will not do this in future, until it is restored, perhaps in a more modern form. This idea is nourished again and again by the memory of the reborn men, who had lived once in that empire.
In history of mankind is in many foundations of empires consciously or unconsciously made the attempt to reconstruct this empire of the “Golden Age”. But again and again failed these attempts or were of limited duration, for there were missing important preconditions or the necessary knowledge. For as known, have dreams without the necessary real knowledge, only a short life.
The first attempt to reconstruct the by the cosmic catastrophe of 1250 B.C. heavy hurt empire was made by the at the Phoenician coast lying branches and fleet bases under leadership of the strong fortress of Tyrus. Tyrus was, following its tradition, a city of commerce and not a political centre, where at first were seen the aspects of trade. The political, mental and cultural scene fell behind and so was missing this successor the binding spirit. The position of Tyrus was over that little suited to look sufficiently after the interests of the western part of the empire. In respect to this insight was founded by Tyrus at the peak of its power in 800 B.C. the “New Main Town” Carthage, which was thought as the new centre of the empire.
The foundation already happened in aspect of the difficulties, which one expected by the strengthening neighbours of Phoenicia, mainly by Assyria. But Carthage was missing important features for a permanently successful succession. It was less exposed to the influence and political restrictions of the Near East, also its position at the narrow entrance from western to eastern Mediterranean and nearly in the middle between Tharsis and Tyrus promised a successful political influence to both areas, which indeed was realised . But it was a foreign body on North African soil, because the inhabitants of North Africa had withdrawn themselves to the influence of the Atlantean empire since a long time and made their own politic, limited to little political units. With that Carthage was missing the population orientated hinterland and it suffered , when the stream of immigrants from Tyrus cessed, increasingly at the lack of new people with new ideas and also at people , who could fill its army in the case of need.
In its wars it had to fall back to mercenaries, who came partly from states , with which Carthage was in war. This was not good for the moral of the troop and put a hard task to the Carthagean leaders to find an order in the battle, in which must not fight relatives against each other. After two by Rome imposed wars, which had cost much men and material, Carthage failed at least in the third at the inability, to lead sufficient own ,for the task ardent warriors, into the battle against the aggressor.
The next empire which was eager to take up the succession of the Atlantean empire was done in Iran by the there gone main troops of the Atlantean empire and their leaders the Achaemenids. It is interesting to see, that in this name, which they lead after their legendary leader in their emigration , is found again the name of the Achaeens, the Greek component of the Atlantean empire, as also the name of Menes, the legendary founder of the port of Tharsis and on the other side of the king, who unified Upper- and Under-Egypt to one empire. Obviously it is acting about old Atlantean nobility ,which had proved themselves protruding in the Atlantean empire. They proved here their talent again, for the foundation of a gigantic, solid and good organized empire took not more than fifty years.
This new empire made than the political mistake, to let itself implicate by the Phoenicians, who were the lonely ones, who had nearly undisturbed survived the Atlantean catastrophe and were thought to have high political competence in the Mediterranean , into their quarrels with the Greek. Certainly argued the Phoenician with the possibility, to gain again with the victory about the Greek, the old position of power of the Atlantean empire. An aspect, very interesting for the Persian. But they made the mistake, which made after them several empires, to estimate the bigness of an army higher than its quality and moral in fight. Besides this was in the relative small and by mountains divided Greece a gigantic army rather a drawback than an advantage.
So wasted the Persian empire its energy in an enormous act of power against a relative unimportant adversary, who was assisted additionally by home advantage and favourable circumstances. In consequence of the loss of the sea battle of Salamis - in spite of a high superiority in ships and warriors – failed the strived rule about the Mediterranean Sea, the true aim of this war. To this came a not repairable loss of prestige of the Persian army, what lead to the fact, that 100 years later the Macedonian king Alexander dared, to fall in to the huge Persian empire and finally conquer it in a triumphal march without example. This gave him the name of “Alexander the Great” in western history.
Alexander the Great is with that the first of single persons , who, possessed from the Atlantean empire idea, changed the world in a couple of years, in which one could recognize the nearly magical number of twelve, without at least gaining the strived empire. He was later on followed by others.
One could be prone to denote the next now in history rising Roman empire also as successor of the Atlantean empire, mainly for the fact, because it ruled in its highest extension about the traditional area of the Mediterranean Sea inclusive of the former Atlantean countries Spain, France and England. Certainly the Roman conquerors were near to this thought. But the fundamental idea was an other. The main matter was military rule by an occupying army and material exploitation of the conquered territories in favour of the metropolis of Rome.
One had little interest at a positive economical development of the ruled countries and it was missing an all joining religion and culture, for most people did not accept the imposed Roman ones. Additionally were at military actions for punishment of rebellions the by the legions of Rome passed countries seriously damaged and driven into ruin. Against the bad treatment of the subjugated people, there were again and again insurrections , which were punished by further military actions of devastation . The previously rich Roman empire changed so by and by into a poor and devastated and it came the point, where the former glorious Roman legions were forbidden by the Roman government, to enter Italy , because after bitter experience, they feared damages in the own country.
So went this empire finally into ruin by its originally force ,that is the more and more escalating power of the army, which added further weakness to the not very stable political system , which tried different forms of government ,without coming to a lasting one.
Also the next foundation of an empire stood less under the idea of the renaissance of the Atlantean empire , as under a religious obsession. That it was divine will, to spread the own religion all over the world, and this also by force. In certain manner was not new this idea, for also Christianity stood under the order , to spread its believe all over the world. New was only the idea, that this can happen also by force. This idea had raised in Arabia and had its roots in the strategy of the people of the desert ,to attack from time to time the at its border living people with higher culture and plunder them, to get without big own efforts the relish of their cultural achievements.
The prophet of this idea was Mohammed and he had such success at his compatriots, that them and their armies of riders, thanks of this idea and series of success, held themselves for invincible and conquered in a triumphal march, without any example ,the whole near Orient as far as India and to that North Africa and nearly the whole European area of the old Atlantean empire. With that, they had won old soil of culture in which was still alive the idea of the Atlantean empire. Also men and their ability to build ships and to trade and with this, the knowledge of the coasts and the sea routes were still available and came into life more and more under the relatively soft and friendly to trade and commerce new rule. To that gave the bigness of the empire, that reached from Spain to India and covered with that the full area of the Atlantean empire, at the time of its biggest extension, enormous possibilities for exchange of interesting trade ware.
The Arabian new settlers were over that, basing on their experience with the dry climate of North Africa and thanks of their old unbroken knowledge about the right way of farming, masters in developing of problematic landscapes , to which had grown many areas of Iberia and North Africa by the deforestation in Atlantean and Roman times and the washing away of culture soil by the catastrophe of 1250 B.C. and later on . They installed terraces at the mountain slopes and built extensive irrigation systems, which are partly in action until now. Before all, the South of Spain, Andalusia, which was ruled until 700 years by the Arabs, grow in that time again to the paradise of agriculture, what it was in Atlantean times and before the catastrophe of 1250 B.C.
The world open and tolerant attitude of the new masters, who were, basing on their own education , predominantly friendly and useful to science and fine arts, promoted also the development of the natural sciences, as medicine , the sciences of spirit, as philosophy and astrology and the fine arts, as literature and architectural design ,to name only the most excellent .Universities were founded for the first time on European soil and had an excellent reputation. So one can see in the Muselmanic empire , which had its summit in the caliphate of Cordoba around the year 1000 A.C., although it was not founded as successor, because of its qualities and its lifespan of 700 years as “most genuine” newest successor of the Atlantean empire of old times.
It found its end by a greedy for prey army of hindered crusaders, consisting of European adventurers ,which break one piece after the other from the rich cake , which was the in many little principalities broken Arabian empire in Spain in the middle of the European Middle Ages. That this army called itself ”Christian” was in the beginning more thought as differentiations item against the army of the moors or “Moros”, how they were called. After they had made rich gifts from the success of the beginning to the Pope , gained the raid of robbery the approval of the Church, and their leaders , the kings of the North Spain provinces Arragon and Navarra got at last even the title of “All Christian Catholic Majesties”, although they acted in all other than “Christian” sense – positively understood - and broke concluded pacts after the final victory in big number.
To the misfortune of America found Christopher Colon explicitly in the year of the final victory about the Moors the” western sea way to India “ and discovered the land , which was called in the beginning “West-India” and changed its name later in “America” when was recognized , that it was an own continent. ” To the misfortune of America”, because now the crowd of adventurers , which had until than plundered and robbed Spain, turned to the new discovered country and treated it with the same methods of robbery, with highest approval of the Pope and the official Church and destroyed blossoming cultures without any respect.
One could see in the on this base rising “World Empire” of Spain in which “the sun not sets”, as its mightiest king, Karl V rightly said, after he was chosen by corruption of the German electors to the German Emperor, really a successor of the Atlantean empire ,especially because of its main land Spain and its rule about the oceans. But this empire stood in its spirit not in the old liberal tradition of trade, but was directed to conquest and exploitation of the conquered areas and their complete subjugation under the catholic doctrine. It was with that much nearer in its idea of an empire to the Roman empire than to the Atlantean and had than also a similar history.
Religious and intellectual tolerance were in this empire a foreign word and it was dominating in its inner politics the idea of inquisition, torture and “painful asking”. Who fell into the hand of the legal authorities and the Inquisition and proved not to be absolute catholic Christian and loyal to the state ,or was slandered by resentful man ,came without pity into the torture chamber and afterwards on the stake.
Spain, the former world open Atlantis, founded in this time its bad reputation in Europe, that learned it to be intolerant, arrogant, small minded Christian, and restricted in its thinking to the interest of their ruling oligarchy , which stapled to middle age structures. Also its demonstrations of power, paid by the gold, robbed in America, which reached from the brutal fight with the Spanish Low Lands as far as the conquest of the Popes Power by the infamous Borgias and their atrocities, contributed to the bad reputation of Spanish rule in Europe and made it to an outsider. So it is understandable, that the Worlds Spirit refuses until now the idea of finding in Spain the by Platon described ideal Atlantis, the country of the Golden Age .
The position as Great Power is, because of the careless politic of power and the increasing lack of popularity, only of short duration. In the “Augsburg Peace of Religion” of 1555 ends the claim for power of Karl V in Middle Europe, and the destruction of the Spanish Armada in 1588 in front of England, in which plaid the stormy weather in front of the English South coast a helpful roll, are the beginning of the end of the Spanish rule about the oceans.
A one-side Christian orientated inner politic, which in 1610 culminated in the driving out by breach of contract of the Spanish moors, weakens the Spanish state also in the inner. After the already in 1492 made driving out of the Jews, caused it a further loss of intellectual and artistic potential, with which cannot cope the state, which is not very strong in its ground substance after the emigration of the biggest part of the former Atlantean, talented and inventive people after the catastrophe of 1250 B.C. and was now again weakened by the emigration of many good men into the new conquered countries in South America.
The consequence is further loss of power and with the recognition of the Netherlands in 1648 and the Peace of the Pyrenees made with France, ends finally the position of Spain as a Great Power in Europe. This is not only guilty for the political side, but also for the intellectual and artistic. For Spain contributes in the following 300 years very little to the intellectual, cultural and technological development of Europe. By remain in a nearly Middle Age political and economical structure, it falls back more and more and reaches at the end of the twentieth century, when the wish for a return to Europe gets more and more clear, nearly only the economical, intellectual and political strength of a developing country.
The country, which begins after Spain, to enter into the foot steps of the Atlantean empire, is of quite other sort. Already the catastrophe of 1250 B.C. had not caused so much damage at the British Islands as in Spain. The Northern mountainous parts of land were only affected by the following worsening of climate and a part of people had to emigrate, to do not die by fame. But the core of the country and population was preserved here. In the more Southern lying parts of the country were penetrated and had settled down in the course of later history Danish, Angels and Saxons from North Germany and later on Normans, who before settled in the Baltic Sea and Denmark. The British Islands had so become a collecting area of the in the West staying rests of population of the former Atlantean empire.
Because these rests were predominantly people from the edge of the empire, they stood not very good in the Atlantean tradition of culture and religion. The Christian Church could therefore spread without special opposition by settling in existing shrines of the population and taking the former heathen, Atlantean holydays into the Christian calendar. The influence of Rome was nevertheless a point of dispute and lead finally even to war with Spain, Rome the most assisting State of the West. Also afterwards there are again and again attempts of a Catholic party to strengthen the power of Rome in inner politics, but they were again and again rejected and are ending in the finally breaking away of the Anglican Church from Rome under Henry VIII. The resting strongholds of Catholics in Scotland and Ireland staid although in permanent struggle with the States Church. So England has to find together in the inner, until it can start to play, equipped with a progressive constitution , which establishes as first constitution of the world human rights, a roll in World Politics.
Basing on the high intellectual and entrepreneurial potential ,that here was assembled, was the way to a Great Power, ruling over the Sea ,similar to that of the Atlantean empire. It began with separate actions of bold men like Drake and Raleigh, who fought at own risk, with approval of the English crown, against the Spanish Sea Power and founded the first colonies, and continued in the “Merchant Adventurers” who formed societies for developing of for trade interesting areas of the world.
The state grow slowly into its new roll by the economical success and the wealth which flew into the country, and took only part, when in the meantime essential to life grown positions got in danger. But than with all needed power and consequence. So England grew to the Sea Power Nr. 1 in the world and took care for a world wide safe commerce with its politic of sea bases and a fleet on all seas, completed by a world wide exploration and cartography of all oceans, like did once the Atlantean empire for the Mediterranean Sea. Also the treatment and commercial development of the as interesting seen countries follows the Atlantean manner. One is interested in flourishing and positive development of the chosen country, for only with a economical blossoming country one can make good business.
War quarrels, disturbing the trade, were suppressed with all available power. This concept, that was already used successfully a long time ago in the Atlantean empire, is proving its quality now again in world wide setting, until the fore going development puts an end to the world of colonies and with that also to the British empire.
This end was not caused by any mistakes, inherent in the system, but it was made by the quarrels for power, forced to the supremacy of England by the European competitors France and Germany. The situation of power of Great Britain is comparable in this quarrel to that of Carthage with its adversaries Greece and Rome, eager for more power. Only here were instead of a Scipio and Cato the “founder of an empire” Napoleon I ,Wilhelm II and Hitler , who robbed with their claims for power the strength of the British state, to maintain the gigantic empire. England had to seek help two times by the USA in an European war and this was not without consequences. For in the first ,as in the second World War, finished only the intervention of the USA the war in favour of the Western Allied Forces.
This intervention, which was deciding before all in the Second World War, wanted the USA to be honoured. So got the world after the war formed after its ideas and that of the, by the clever politic of Stalin and its powerful actions at the conquest of Germany rose to the second World Power, Soviet Union. And in this ideas was no place for a British colonial empire. It was disbanded gradually and the colonies got partly unexpected quick to independent states, to which turned in mutual competition both new Super Powers , to use their economical power for themselves . This used now the new states and made a swing politic between both sides, until the zones of interest had become clear.
With the foundation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization pulled the USA to themselves definitively the political and military leadership in Western Europe and the biggest part of the former Atlantean empire ,and got so the potential successor of the present , which with skill, and under far going respect to the interests of the Allied, extends its position again and again and is seen today as ideal partner even from some people of the former Russian power area.
Its political concept lies until now completely on the line of the former Atlantean empire and one can expect, that – if a connecting intellectual and moral basis can be built and hold – with continuation of the present politic a long successful life can be granted to the “New Atlantean Empire”.
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