The Sinking of Atlantis II.
by Karl Juergen Hepke
As an introduction is given the report of Solon in the book Timaios from Platon about the knowledge of the Greeks about the destruction of Atlantis. This report is one of the most important keys to the historical events at the transition from the old to the new historical time.
"There is in the delta where the Nile splits a country which is called the Saitic and of which the biggest town is Sais. To it, told Solon, he is gone and asked the most knowledgeable about old times and discerned , that neither he nor an other Greek knows something about it. One day, when they were talking about old times an erudite priest said to him:"
Oh, Solon, Solon, you Hellenes remain always children, nobody of the Hellenes is growing to a very old man." "Why, how do you mean that?" he has asked. Then he had answered:" You are all young in your souls, because you have no old opinion in it , which is founded on ancient stories, and no knowledge, getting grey by the time.
The reason for that is: A lot of multifarious destructions of men has happened and will happen again, the most important by fire and water, other, less important, by thousands of other coincidences. That at least, which is told at you, that once Phaeton, the son of Helios, has mounted the car of his father and destroyed the surface of earth, because he was unable to keep the way of his father and found himself his death, struck by a lightning, is told like a fairytale. The true in it is the deviation of at heaven revolving stars and the after long periods of time happening destruction of that on earth situated by mighty fire.
When the destruction is made by mighty fire, those who live at mountains and dry areas are more struck than those who live at rivers and at the sea. When , however, Gods, to reform it, overflow the earth with water, than the inhabitants of mountains escape from destruction and these , who live at towns at the sea are swept away by the rivers.
And so it happened at you and at other nations, that, when you were just provided with writing and other furnishing of states, a flood of heaven overtook you like a disease and left only the ignorant of writing and uneducated, so that you returned to youth without knowledge of that which happened in old times at you and somewhere else.
And so you are ignorant about the signifying heroic deed, which performed your state Athens. But that at us recorded tells, that your state overwhelmed once a big warring power which came high spirited from the Atlantic sea to whole Europe and Asia. In that time that sea was navigable and in front of the entrance , which is called, as you say, the Pillars of Herakles, was situated an island bigger than Asia and Lybia put together. From it you could get to the other islands and from them to the whole opposite situated continent lying at that true sea.
At this island, Atlantis, was united a big wonderful power of kings and their united warring power took once action to subjugate by a raid our country and all at this side of the entrance situated countries. Than, o Solon, the warring power of your home town became evident with courage and valour to everybody. For, surpassing all others in courage and tricks applicable in war, they got into utmost danger , partly at the top of the Hellenes, partly after the renunciation of the other and left alone dependent on their own force, but was victor and erected signs of victory over the advancing troop. They prevented them to subjugate also the until than not subjugated, us other, living inside of the Pillars of Herakles they generously gave the liberation.
enormous earthquakes and flooding sunk in later times, in only one nasty night
and day, your warring power at one time into earth and in the same manner was
the island of Atlantis drawn from the sight of eyes by sinking into the sea.
The sea there got impassable and cannot be researched because the mud in low
depth, which left the sinking island, became a hindrance."
So far the report of Platon.
The Cosmic Catastrophe of 1250 B.C.
Howl, ships of Tharsis, for it is destroyed, there is no more a house and nobody is going there. The inhabitants of the island got quiet and the fortress at the sea is speaking: I am no more pregnant , I do no more give birth, I do no more raise youths and bring up no virgins. Howl, inhabitants of the island. Go to Tharsis, is that your merry town, that is proud of its age. Jesaja, Chapter 23.
What had happened, what shook men as far as the eastern edge of the Mediterranean. From archaeological digging up we know, that Troja was destroyed around 1250 B.C. by an earthquake. From the area of Mycenes in southern Greece are known big damages by earthquakes from this time. In the plain of Argolis , south of Mycenes, were found additional damages by a devastating flood. A about five meters thick layer of mud covered parts of the town of Tyrins.
From Ronda, a town more than 3000 years old in the mountains of Andalusia is known, that an earthquake in prehistoric time has split an over 100 meters high rock, on which is now situated the town , and left a deep gorge, which is nowadays crossed by three bridges.
In Jesaja, Chapter 24, you can read, what was probably reported by eyewitnesses:" The earth will burst and decay with crash. The earth will stagger like a drunken man and will be thrown to and fro like a hanging bed. For the windows of the height are opened and the foundations of the earth are trembling." There was obviously not only a devastating earthquake, but additionally were "opened the heavens" and an enormous continuing cloudburst fell unto the country, washed ashore the ground from the mountains, which were robbed of its woods by men, and fell as an avalanche of water and mud into the valleys, sweeping away men and animals, trees, walls and towns. A land of horror was left, in which no man would further live.
For what you can read further in Jesaja: "Look, the LORD is making the country empty and waste, throws around what is in it and scatters its inhabitants. The country stands wretched and ruined , the ground is decreasing and spoiled. Only desertedness is in the town and the gates are open.
Earthquakes of this magnitude have an additional terrible effect mainly at coastal regions. They produce a wave in the sea , that in inopportune cases can rise unto 200 meters. Today it is called "Tsunami", a term which is coming from Japan, for in today times this phenomenon is known from the coast regions of its islands. It overflows the coast and tears away everything.
It is very possible, that a centre of the earthquake was in front of the coast of Iberia, that a wave found its way long into the unprotected plain of Andalusia and flooding to and fro destroyed everything and left a desert of mud into which no ship could penetrate. With that the statement of Platon about the destruction of Atlantis would be correct.
" In the same manner was the island of Atlantis drawn from the sight of eyes by sinking into the sea. The sea there got impassable and cannot be researched because the mud in low depth, which left the sinking island, became a hindrance."
The term "island of Atlantis" used by the Egyptians must not fit for the whole country, for the Egyptians, who were no seafarers, called an "Island" also an only by ship reachable beach with some hinterland.
For the big earthquake was combined with devastating cloudbursts, both affected the whole area of Mediterranean included Greece and the catastrophe lasted following Platon one day and one night, the cause of that catastrophe could have been the impact of a bigger meteorite in the Atlantic, near the coast. This meteorite and the by its impact-force caused following earthquake were the trigger of an enormous wave, which struck the Atlantic coast of Iberia, France, England, Ireland and in more moderate form the countries bordering the North Sea and produced the destruction of many at the coast situated towns of the Atlantean Empire.
Also for the cultural and political centre of the empire, Tharsis, it was death and destruction of the town. Its location at the South-West coast of Iberia, at a bay, the centre only 10 km from the sea, although on a small hill, behind it a mountain range parallel to the coast line, was extremely inopportune for such a wave.
To the sea extended the plain, only some meters over the sea level. And this plain was passed through by a river and artificial canals, of which the main canal, which was also the port, run in a width of 100 meters in an angle of 90 degrees to the coast line directly to the centre of the town.
So the wave found nearly no resistance as far as the foot of the mountain range. The bay and the main canal concentrated over that like a funnel the force of the water directly to the centre of the town and, because it was prevented by the mountain range behind the town to go further into the plain, it rose to a considerable height. Probably the rise stopped only, when the water found its way through the behind the town lying saddle of the mountain. So the top of the mountain with the there situated buildings escaped from the water. But the earthquake probably destroyed also them.
The hill with the historical town centre however was equally struck by earthquake and wave. The town of merchants at the canal, described by Platon, with its light buildings of wood and clay was at first swept away by the wave and the hill and the centre were additionally covered with the rubble of the suburb. Differently it was at the hill. Here stood the old main buildings, temple and palace of the king built in Atlantean manner strong and sure with big stones. Here could have remained a big part of the old structure of the town under rubble and the washed up mud.
Especially interesting at digging up this place will be that Tharsis, like Pompeji and Herculaneum was destroyed by a natural disaster and that all treasures and devices of daily life were not robbed by men but destroyed in worst case only by the force of nature. Because at Tharsis, the centre of the Atlantean metal commerce were available a lot of metal devices of gold, silver, bronze and copper, an extensive digging up action will bring rich finds. A beginning was made at other place. In the neighbourhood of Seville, at Carambolo, a rich treasure of gold was found , which you can see today in the museum of Seville.
In the town area of Puerto were made until now rich finds. They consist at one side in rests of human settling in the middle and young Stone Age, which were made in the beach region and the dunes, to the other side they are the result of extensive digging at several places.
The current digging , which is made in increasing form on a hill in front of the mountain range, produced ceramics and tools of “Phenician” origin and devices , which are showing a brisk trade with the Greek. They were dated by the local archaeologists to the ninth until third century B.C..
They found here a “Phenician” town extending over six hectare , not changed by other new building in very good state of preservation. This find is in the eyes of the archaeologists a sensation, because there exists no comparable find in the western and middle Mediterranean . After not official confirmed opinion it could be the rests of the long researched town “Tartessos”.
Besides was found on the mountain slope behind the plain a necropolis, extending about nearly 100 hectares with extensive burials, which are dated from Middle Bronze until Tartessian time, that is from nearly 2000 B.C. until 200 B.C.. On the behind the hill with the excavation situated mountain range was discovered a further “archaeological place” , which was until now not further dug out and under which is hidden probably a fortified castle in form of an acropolis.
Because until now not was found a settling place , fitting the burials of Middle Bronze, is supposed that the settling on the mountain range is out off this time. Even more probable is, that the” town from the time of bronze” was situated in the plain in front of the “Tartessos Hill” and is not jet discovered.
But back to the events of 1250 B.C. and the consequences for the town of Tharsis and the country. The wave of the sea, which swept away the town in the plain and the port and destroyed the town at the hill flooded back again and carried with it to the sea all partly swimming, which was destroyed or loosened by the earthquake or the flowing wave. That could be men, animals, beams, ships, trees, ground, scree, mud, the harvest of the fields and the vegetation of the surface of the earth.
It remained a desert of mud, spilled canals, a mud filled bay. The following torrential cloudbursts, lasting for days, caused an additional flood from the mountains, which could not flow away through the rivers and canals, blocked by trees, stones and mud. The country became marshy and every access to the former town, as told in the report of Platon, was made impossible for a long time. So the statement in the report of Platon is explained that the town sunk. And for clarification the words of Platon will her be repeated:
"But by enormous earthquakes and flooding sunk in later times, in only one nasty night and day, your warring power at one time into earth and in the same manner was the island of Atlantis drawn from the sight of eyes by sinking into the sea. The sea there got impassable and cannot be researched because the mud in low depth, which left the sinking island, became a hindrance."
In this case of Atlantis II was with that not inevitable meant a lasting sinking of the town, as in the case of Atlantis I , but it must have been a temporary flooding with complete destruction, which also took away the former town out of the sight of eyes. The sentence about the not passable sea caused by low depth of the water and mud in it forces explicitly the version of the only temporary sinking. For everybody, who has seen an area flooded by natural disaster knows the problem to get into it.
Still today there are in the bay of Cadiz and the southern coast big salt marshes in the coast area. The modern road building has made them passable, but its look tells still today of the miserableness which radiated the country after the catastrophe and induced the survived to take flight. Over that still now the coast area is marked by salted, infertile soil partly far into the land.
Effects of the Catastrophe in the Mediterranean Area
By archaeological finds is known, that Troja was destroyed two times at the end of the Bronze Age within only some decades. At first the town was damaged about 1250 B.C. by an earthquake. One of the gigantic walls of defence crashed in the earthquake, stairs collapsed and foundations moved. Some buildings had clear signs of burning.(41)
At the rebuilding of the fortress the Trojans had a new concept. The ground-plan within the new fortified defence system was altered so, that the method of building sized for princely rulers with large Megara and wide open places was turned to smaller buildings, between which were nearly no roads. Gigantic containers for stocks were sunk into the ground - its edges were little over the surface- and covered with beams of wood or discs of stone. At the same time the imports of Mycenes, that had flown amply between 1400 and 1250 B.C. dried up. (41)
Within one generation after finishing the new planed Troja VIIa - with a ground-plan which was interpreted as a preparation for a siege - the town was plundered. This second destruction by catastrophic conflagrations is generally attributed to the Greeks. Unfortunately scientist have until now not succeeded in dating the destructions of Troja with certainty, therefore research has to trust in possibly subjektiv marked results of standing out scientists.(41)
At archaeological digging up and drilling near Tyrins in the Greek Argolis were found signs of a catastrophic flood which buried the eastern part of the lower situated municipal area under a layer of mud of several meters thickness.(41)
At some drillings in this layer of at maximum five meter thickness was found a multitude of good conserved pottery with some rare pieces. Most of it were dated to the palace period, a sign, that the flooding took place at this time (1200 - !250 B.C.) Additionally the digging up of Tyrins has given signs of several earthquakes, under that one of about 1200 B.C.. In Mycenes there are signs of earthquakes in the time between 1300 and 1250 B.C. There were extensive fires and some houses collapsed by which at least one inhabitant was beat to death at his threshold.(41)
Much of these facts can be attributed with large probability to the cosmic event, which caused big devastations in the Mediterranean area, lead to the destruction of Tharsis, the blocking of the northern route to the Atlantic, what we will explain later, and in its consequences to the decline of all cultures in the eastern Mediterranean area depending on the prosperous sea commerce with metals out of the Atlantean area.
Also inscriptions in Egypt tell of a heavy natural disaster around 1200 B.C. This catastrophe affected the whole of Europe. A meteorite, appearing at heaven in increasing size, surrounded earth repeatedly and darkened the heaven. It moved than over earth burning the woods and fell at least onto earth in the area of the "Northern Sea", that means the Atlantic coast, and provoked heavy earth- and seaquakes.
By the import of energy were vaporized enormous quantities of seawater, which caused immense clouds and heavy long lasting cloudbursts. The rain washed ashore the cultivated soil from the mountains and covered the cultivated ground in the valleys with mud. The increased production of clouds lead to a worsening of climate, which had a negative effect mainly to the harvests to the northern settling nations. This lead to famines and to an mass exodus in the most struck area of Iberia, France, North-West Germany , the Baltic Area, England and Ireland, the areas of original or later settling of the Atlantian Empire at the Atlantic and in Northern Europe.
When the exodus turned increasing to a prosperous raid, joined also the Mediterranean natives to it. Tyrrhenia, Sardinia and Corsica, which were also struck by the long lasting worsening of climate, supplied further groups of men. These nations returned after many years of roaming through the eastern Mediterranean area by the sea route to their old areas of settlement. From the former Tyrrhenians came so the Etruscans of "unknown origin" of the old writing of history.
Because they came from the East and brought back culture to the West came into being the opinion, that all culture came from the East. "Ex oriente lux", "from the East came the light", is until now told in the conventional European historigraphy.
An error, in what it is in good society with the Greeks, at whose knowledge and historigraphy are founded the previous historical ideas of our time. To be not forced to knock over this traditional image of history are sometimes created adventurous ideas to put new scientific and archaeological insights into this old structure.
The Change of the Coast of the Atlantic by the Catastrophe
by Karl Juergen Hepke
. After the actual insights in the building of continents, Iberia was before millions of years an island which became a spacer between the African and Euro Asiatic slab. By this it was considerable lifted, at many areas several hundreds of meters.
This is easy to recognize by the fossils of the sea which can be found in the upper plains of Spain, for example in the district of Ronda in Andalusia in a height of 700 m . Besides that is proved that many structures of the Spanish countryside were formed, when the land was still ground of the sea.
Iberia and also the South of France are areas of raising in which latent tensions in direction of rise are also now still available. Is such a region of tension hit by a bigger meteorite with considerable energy, the latent tension is set free in a big earthquake in which the crust of earth moves so, that a cutback of the existing tensions happens. In the here considered case the ground in Iberia and South France will raise.
Now there is in South France in front of the Pyrenees in continuation of the Basque coast and the Gulf of Biscaya a deep lowland. There is flowing through two of three parts the Garonne, which flows into the Atlantic, with its source rivers. The remaining third, beginning at Toulouse is crossed by the "Canal du Midi", an already in 1680 A.C. built canal for inland navigation which reaches the Mediterranean Sea at Sété and until now is a water way from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean Sea avoiding the long detour round Iberia.
The geological map of France shows, that the lowland is mainly filled with sedimentation of the ice age. But there is from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean Sea a going through area that is filled with sedimentation from the time after the ice age. Large parts of the country touched by the canal, are still now lying much below its level. Therefore the canal follows the inclinations of the northern lying hills.
With that one can conclude, that with big probability there was a water connection after the last ice age and the following ascent of the sea, that means about 5000 B.C. and 1250 B.C. between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. This is as more probable as in the Atlanticum, a warm time after the last ice age which lasted till 2500 B.C., the level of the sea was partly 30 m higher than now.
This connection was with the still now remaining structure of the country partly very shallow and full of water-plants. It could be only be passed by experts of the way, was known as dangerous passage under the name "mare tenebrosum" (the darkened sea) because of the still now frequent occurrence of clouds and mist in front of the ridge of Pyrenees and "mare coagulatum" ( the thick sea ) because of the water-plants in it, in the antic world.
This sea followed from its mouth into the Mediterranean near Narbonne and Beziers the lowland south of the course of the Canal du Midi as far as the Garonne. Than it expanded more and more into the area of the "Landes" of today till it reached the Pyrenees. The northern coast reached the Atlantic near the Bordeaux of today. Iberia was with that really an island and the people of Egypt were also in our understanding right, when they called it "Atlantis", which means in old Egypt language "island without name".
The depth of the water in that sea north of the Pyrenees was partly very low and you can expect with big probability, that there were markings of the waterway and markings for bearing. These markings were certainly carried out by the old Atlanteans, as on the mainland, in the stile of time , that means in megalithic stones and Menhirs . At the coast of the Atlantic there are still now such Menhirs for bearing from the sea. It was close to call these gigantic stones, which were not known in the Mediterranean area as markings of the waterway, the "pillars of Herakles".
The Greek Aristoteles described the stretches of water outside of the "pillars of Herakles" as "because of the mud shallow, but quiet, for it lies in a cavity" (1b) which fits much better for the stretches of water north of the Pyrenees than for the deep Street of Gibraltar with its strong current.
And so the name, which was given to the preferred waterway to the Atlantic of old times is explained. For the mountains of Gibraltar and the African coast, to which the name was applied, when the northern passage was not more practicable, are merely remembering to pillars.
So also the question is explained which put the king of Phaeaks to Odysseus as "if he had come from West ore East". If he had come from West he would have known the strictly kept secret passage of the North and had probably not survived. But because he came from the East and had therefore used the more known Street of Gibraltar he could have been deported by the same way.
You must always remember at these naming, which had come from the Greek to us, that the Greek themselves nearly never came into these areas, which were strictly guarded by the Atlanteans of all times, included that of the Etruscians and Carthagenians. They had only knowledge of it through the stories of Atlantean and later Phenician merchants or seamen. But these were not very interested in telling their possible competitors many true things. So the Greeks were nearly groping around in the dark when they tried to tell about these areas and their report became often the character of a legend.
At the mouth into the Atlantic this zone of shallow water extended south through the today nearly drained and with forest covered "Landes" as far as the Pyrenees and to the north as far as the steep coast of the Armorican mountains which begins at the seaside resort Yard sur Mer of today. Here in the North the shallow water extended differently but predominantly for kilometres into the land, following a line which you can discern today in the transition from the low marshland to the hilly hinterland.
The mouth areas of the rivers Charente, Sevre Niortaise, Vendee and Lay were still in younger historical times marshy and full of water vegetation. Till the Middle Age here extended the legendary "Golf of Pictons". If here were before 1250 B.C. bigger islands is not easy to say. The highest points of the Ile Oleron and the Ile de Re with 20 and 30 m are dunes which possibly came into being on sandbanks. Only the old country Aunis, at the point of which lies today the town La Rochelle, could have been at that time an island with its height of 37 m and rocky subsoil.
The passage through these areas was certainly not harmless and only possible for a seaman, who had big experience or knowledge of the way. From the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic were to do 400 Km. With the possible middle speed of merchant ships of that time of 10 Km/h and a time of sailing of 10 hours a day this distance could be passed in four days. In an additional day Yard sur Mer was reached.
Here was a good natural harbour in the mouth of a little river, which in later Atlantean time, which is here called Phenician time, grow to a town with possibilities of reload and supply. Not far from it, you can find many dolmen and Menhirs, what shows, that this harbour is very old and had some importance. The Menhirs, which could be seen from the sea at that time were possibly land markings and objects for bearing. Probably this was the first good harbour after the passage of the low sea.
What made this harbour additionally interesting, is the fact that there are in a distance of 70 Km to the North-East, near the sources of the Lay, mines of the metal antimony. Antimony is an important valuable raw material for the hardening of metal, especially for bronze. It has also the pleasant quality, to reduce the melting temperature of the alloy. It is possible, that here were, in the meantime exploited, also deposits of tin. Until now you find here uranium and lead. It is possible , that this deposit of uranium was already exploited in the time of Atlantis I about 15 000 B.C. for some researchers are thinking, that in that time were known nuclear weapons. This opinion is founded on reports in the Indian Mahabharata.(2a)
From Yard sur Mer the now relatively problem-free journey of the old seamen lead to the island of Ouessant, lying in front of the coast of Brittany. It was still in the time of Carthage the reloading place for the tin coming from Brittany and from Cornwall.