Book 3

 

The Position of Atlantis

 

von Karl Juergen Hepke

 

After the historic report of Platon we will now look at the position of today, for taking Atlantis from the area of fables to the ground of facts. Following Platon Atlantis was situated behind the "Pillars of Herakles". The district which was south of the town was named "Gadeiros".

The Spanish town Cadiz, which is situated nearly 100 Km north-west of the Street of Gibraltar at the coast of the Atlantic, was named in older times Gades and before that, in the time of the ancient Greeks, Gadeiros. Cadiz is taken for an foundation of the Phoenicians and is known as oldest town of the western world. There is no doubt at all, that Cadiz and the Gadeiros of Platon are the same towns.

 

North of Cadiz there is a plain which is nearly 150 Km large at the sea and is extending in west-east direction nearly 300 Km into southern Spain. This plain was settled since primeval times. There were found coarse worked tools of stone in layers of pebble, which was the former edge of the sea reaching to 30 Km further into the land. These tools were assigned to the so-called "homo habilis" and are nearly 1 million years old. With that, they are the oldest testimonials of human settling in the Iberian peninsula.

 

Against the cold wind of the north the plain is protected by a long range of mountains which is called today Sierra Morena. In the plain there is a lot of little rivers and as a big one , which is passable also for large seaships , the Guadalquivir. South of the Guadalquivir there is a less big river called Guadalete, which comes from the southern mountains and flows into the Atlantic at the port of"El Puerto de Santa Maria". About fifty km inland lies the town of Seville from which South America was conquered and ruled in the time of the Spanish empire. About 10 Km north of Seville are the ruins of the Roman town Italica, from which came two famous Roman emperors. And further inland at the Guadalquivir lies Cordoba, which was about 1000 A.C. a cosmopolitan city with one million inhabitants, the seat of the western caliphate and main town of culture in the western world at that time. As one can see, a country full of history.

 

In the language of the Arabian conquerors of that time the country was called "al Andaluz" which following customary interpretation comes from the "Vandals", who here settled before the Visigoths as first people of the Germanic migration and than moved on to North Africa. But a little bit unclear pronounced and thinking of the thousands of years of oral and written name tradition which has passed, not so far away from the name "Atlantis" of the old Egyptians, which in their language meant "island without name".

 

 

 In Spain of today it is named "Andalucia" and is an independent region of Spain.
In this country was situated once a rich and famous town, which was called by the ancient Greeks "Tartessos" and is named in the Bible in the book of Jesaja and at many other points under the name of "Tharsis" or "Tarschisch". It is called here the merry town, which is proud of its age. Its merchants, which had branches at Tyrus and
Sidon are called "inhabitants of the island" and their market and port was famous all over the Mediterranean Sea. Apart from Jesaja it is named in the Bible at 1.Mose 10,4; 2.Chronik 2,2; 20,36-37; Esther. 1,14 ; Psalm. 72, 10 ; Jeremia. 10, 9 ; Hesekiel. 27, 12. 25 ; Jona 1,3 ; 4,2 . The "Illustrated Dictionary and Concordance of the Bible" of 1990 calls it "the country from which the people of Tyrus imported silver, iron, tin and lead. Jona tried there to go by ship. Salomon also sent ships to it."

 
Following the texts of the Bible, Tharsis and the Chittits were sons of Javan, the ankle of Noah, who lived in the western countries and on the islands of the heathens. The ships of Tharsis were the wealthiest and most powerful on the sea and Tharsis itself is called the "town of primeval times".

We will not call the town with the name of "Tartessos", under which it is known in Spain, although its position is taken until now as unknown. It got this name in a later time after its reconstruction and in a time which is known in the history of the Iberian peninsula as "Phoenician".

Because here we are talking about its first great time we will use the name which is used in the Bible

 

T h a r s i s

 

And we will see , that it is identical with Platons "Atlantis" in all points.

It is not astonishing, that this signifying roll has found its expression in some overcoming reports of history. An Egyptian stele with hieroglyphs, by means of which an old , high-ranged Egyptian priest told the Greek Solon the story of power and importance of Atlantis and the Bible, the probably most important book of old history of the West. Also Homer has put a monument to it with his story of Scheria , the town of the kings of the Phaeakean  , where Odysseus finally arrived after his long voyages. Over that, in Egyptian hieroglyph mentions you can find the name of nations of Atlantis which are often simply put together in the name of the "sea-people”. From the archives of the Egyptian kings is known a correspondence with the country "Alasija", which probably means "Atlantis". For the first supposition, that Alasija was situated in Cyprus, could not be confirmed.

 

This seems to be nevertheless not very much and not appropriate to the historical importance of the country and the town. This is due to the devastations which were produced by later nations in the Mediterranean area. On standing out place you will find here the Romans. They have caused the destruction of the library of Alexandria, in which burned 700 000 books with the gathered knowledge of the old world and have also destroyed nearly all knowledge of the West European heirs of Atlantis, the Etruscans  and the Carthageans .

 The succession of them was taken by the early Christians and later by the Catholic Church. They condemned any knowledge coming from older times as "heathen" and destroyed it inconsiderately. An other reason for it, is the politics of secrecy which was practised by the countries of the Atlantean empire.

 

 For the Atlanteans and their successors the Phoenicians and also the Carthageans provided by all means, that no Greek ship could enter into the sea west of Italy. Also the ships of the Romans were fought with all methods to keep the coasts and sea routes as secret as possible. This was done with pure commercial consideration , for they did not like to show the sea ways to the sources of Atlantean wealth, the mines of copper, tin, silver and gold and other important raw materials to the possible competitor.

But now back to the today position of the town of Tharsis or Atlantis.

The town which lies today at the place of the former
port of Atlantis at the mouth of the Guadalete is called "El Puerto de Santa Maria" and was called in that region since time immemorial "El Puerto", "The Port". Before the conquest by the Moors, it was called, following the official history of town, to his legendary founder "Puerto de Menestheo" , which does mean "The Port of the God Menes." The visitor, burdened with knowledge of old history, remembers, that the king or god Menes is known as the man, who unified Upper- and Lower-Egypt and initiated the rapid cultural rise of the land at the Nile about 3000 B.C. This shows at least, that this port is very old and older than the Phoenician trading place Cadiz , which is situated in front of it on a small peninsula and was founded at 1100 B.C.

 

In the area of Puerto and its port were found at some 10 000 m2 the vestiges of a village in form of huts and houses and assigned to that subterranean constructions in form of a bell which served as silos and sometimes as tombs. Also were found tools for the production of sun-dried bricks and places of cooking, richly furnished with usual kitchen equipment. Knife-edges, handmade pottery, crescent shaped teeth, arrowheads, thin plates of trapezoid form, sharped flints, splinters of stones and bones were found, showing that there was production of tools and devices for daily use. This early settlement was dated to 3500 B.C.

A look at the Michelin-map of Andalusia scaled 1:400 000 shows: Following the direction of the port to the North-East there is a small canal going into the land until it is forced by the railway line Cadiz-Jerez to break to the East. The railway line itself avoids an in North-East to South-West extending mountain range of nearly six kilometre length and surrounds it in the South-East at the village of "El Portal". Between railway and mountain goes the old road from Puerto to Jerez de la Frontera and on the other side of the railway-line flows the river Guadalete from here to the port of Puerto in many curves.

 

 

Already in front of Jerez branches the old road to Algeciras, which was named in the time of the Romans Carteia and was in Phoenician time and almost also in Atlantean time a representing town. In direction East-North-East follows the old road to Arcos de la Frontera which goes further to Ronda and to Antequera. Also these two towns have been proved as very old and were existing at least as settlements about 2500 B.C. To North-North-East follows the old, probably most important road which goes to Utrera and Carmona and from there to Lora del Rio and the mines of the Bronze Age in the mountains of Sierra Morena. At the other side it goes from Utrera over Ecija to Cordoba and opens with that the whole of the Andalusian plain. Also from Utera branches the old road to North, which goes to the Seville of today and further to the tin and silver regions of North-West Iberia and is until now named "Ruta de la Plata", which means "silver-road".

 

This spider-web formed road network shows once more the importance of the region. It is shown also by the fact that there happened the deciding battle between the Visigoths and the Moors  .
Also the Romans won here a deciding battle. It looks like a fact, that the conquest of this region was an absolute precondition for the mastery of the hinterland, and it becomes clear, why the here positioned town was at last totally levelled and made inhabitable by the conqueror. The conqueror than prevented for a long time , that it was reconstructed.

 

This points in direction of Rome, for it is known, that the Romans, first in Etruria  , than in Carthage and later on in Jerusalem and at many not so well-known places, prevented, that old famous towns were reconstructed after the conquest and destruction by them for nothing should reduce the fame of the world ruling city of Rome. Beside this, the Romans ruled over 400 years South-Iberia and this time was sufficient to extinguish the knowledge of the old town in the memory of the inhabitants of the country. The archaeological report published in 2003 confirms this supposition.


The highest elevation of the mountain at its south-eastern end is given in the map as 124 m. In front of it is situated a hill of nearly one kilometre length and 30 m height. Here you find the large archaeological excavation which shows until now a fortified town of the time between the ninth and the third century B.C. At this digging up has been worked since 1978.

 

There were found extensive rests of walls of burned houses, surrounded by fortifications. In the houses were found pottery, Phoenician devices and rests , which are showing an intensive exchange with the Greeks. This town is, following the archaeological won dates of time, not Atlantis-Tharsis. But all is pointing out to interpret this town as the successor of Atlantis-Tharsis named "Tartessos. Because Tartessos was the heir of the advantages of the position of Atlantis-Tharsis, its position cannot be far away. When you look at the area and are conscious of the Atlantis report of Platon, there is only the plain between the hill of Tartessos and the sea , which answers to all given details.



Here you can easily put the rings of water and land described by Platon. The river Guadalete with its curves could have given the island of the beginning.

On the saddle of the mountain situated behind the hill of Tartessos ( it is now called "Sierra de San Cristobal" and upon it was found an extended necropole of the beginning of the Bronze Age until the Tartessian time) there are big modern settings of sources of water and a little bit north of it you can find several ditches and tunnels. The walls of it are vertical and smooth hewed. The ceilings are lightly bended. In their old grey state they are remembering the submarine boat bunkers of the second world war or the bunkers of the "Atlantikwall" in France.



But there is no marking of planking and no jutting out rusted reinforcement of steel. These bunkers were knocked out of the rock and in it were probably stored the ships and stocks of the town situated in front of the mountain. The size of the tunnels would have been sufficient to store two boats of the Atlantean time side by side. Also the height is like that of a little house.

 

Above the saddle of the mountain there is at his highest point a flat place. The large grey socles on which the Parthenon of Athens would have place enough, prove themselves as water containers, hewn into the rock with a gigantic flat cover plate and conically to the top running supports like an Egyptian temple. The lightly rising roads between the separate plinths are planted with bushes and flowers like a temple road and to the south-east follows a forest of beautiful trees.


Again Platon enters into the mind, telling: The
temple of Poseidon was long one stadion, 500 feet large and of corresponding height. It would have had place here and with it the castle of the king and all other described by Platon. The modern construction of the water containers has destroyed naturally all vestiges of old times, but a little bit further to the end of the mountain, where the flat plate passes over to a spur of the mountain 100 m large and 600 m long, there is an undisturbed archaeologically interesting place which is marked with fragments of pottery and some elevations like destroyed walls. A sign with the inscription "Archaeological Place" shows that also this place is reserved for a later digging up.
At the edge of the mountain-top you are surprised by the marvelous panorama which is offered.

 

Really a view for Gods.

Far, far goes the look over the fertile country, the white Jerez seems to be a little village in the gigantic plain and to the other side the look goes over the plain to the sea and the cranes of Cadiz. Everything Platon is telling about the uniqueness of this place is here fulfilled. Really a place which would have been chosen by gods.

Here becomes clear, why in all religions of nations coming from the Atlantean culture, gods are living on a mythic mountain. This is the mountain which gave the basic idea for the Olymp of the Greeks, the Walhalla of the Germans , the Zikkurates of Mesopotamia  and many other natural or artificially created mountain of Gods.
And Platon must again be quoted because there is no better description of the place as this:

"At the sea-coast, to the middle of the whole island was a plain,
which was more beautiful and fertile than any other".

 

On the highest point of the terrain on which had found only place a little temple is positioned today a little swimming pool with a decorative surrounding and a fantastic view to the plain and again comes Platon into mind :” So they used also the sources the cold and the warm flowing , which had an abundant flow of water and of which was each wonderful suitable for use, by surrounding them with buildings and at water thriving tree plantations, as with partly uncovered, partly covered bath rooms for warm bath in winter. From the flowing away water they conducted a part to the grove of Poseidon, to trees of all sort, thanks of the quality of the soil of divine beauty and height . But the other, by beside the bridges going channels, to the outer lying belts.

Also this thought finds its expression in this pool. And on the other side lies the grove of Poseidon . Not with such wonderful trees, as Platon says, but for men of today enough beautiful and impressing. The mystery of the position of Platon´s "Atlantis" seems therefore solved.

 

But this is only effective for the "Atlantis" of the Bronze Age, described by Platon in his texts. But now tells Platon, that the Egyptians dated the sinking of Atlantis in 9000 years before Solons visit in Egypt.

And with that begins the muddle and for a lot of people the chaos, that makes the report of Platon incredible. Because 9500 B.C. there was no Bronze Age on earth. There were no settlements in Greece and there was no town of Athens, which could resist the penetrating Atlanteans, as Platon tells.

 

For the solution of this puzzle there is only one possibility. The 9000 years, which told the Egyptian priest to the "ignorant Greeks", were moon-years and not sun-years. In old times it was usual in Egypt, to count the years to the phases of the moon. An "Egypt-year" of that time corresponds nearly to a month of our calendar and went from full-moon to full-moon. For the seasons are not very distinct in Egypt this was much better to recognize than the position of the sun, which does not change the climate very much.

 

This calculation to "moons" was usual in all old cultures, as in Mesopotamia and also in the old calendar of the Celts. I have pointed to the probable reasons already in the chapter about the old Atlantis in the Bermuda triangle. The 9000 moon years must therefore be shared by 12,34, for the moon goes round the earth 12,34 times in a sun-year. Than you get 729 years. Added up to the time of 500 B.C., when Solon was in Egypt, you come to 1229 B.C. Following today knowledge, 1250 B.C. happened the natural disaster in which Platons Atlantis sunk down and 1190 B.C. was the first battle between Egypt and the sea-peoples.

 

The natural disaster of 1250 B.C. caused a nearly 600 years lasting worsening of the climate , which was the cause of the "migration of the sea-people" as the Egyptians called it.
The consequence of this migration was, that the whole
Near East as far as Egypt and India was historically unambiguous provable rolled up by the penetrating "Atlantean" people. They passed into history as "Sea-people" , "Arameans", "Arias" naming only some very good known.

We will come later to this.

 

 

Beginning and Expansion of Atlantis

 

by Karl Juergen Hepke

 

To the todays level of knowledge you can suppose, that Iberia and the areas bordering to North and West got their first settlement by Cro-Magnon people coming from Africa. It is possible, that these Cro-Magnons were not only stronger in their physique, which is proved by finds, but also bigger than man of later times and got therefore into history as "giants". As we have seen in other chapters, the Cro-Magnons were preceded by Neanderthal-man who disappeared at the immigration of the new kind of man and had no further roll in development of mankind.

The immigration happened in times of glacial epochs and warmer times between it , in changing rhythm of progression and regression of ice since 30 000 B.C.. Much is speaking for the supposition, that these immigrants founded a high culture at that early time. Rests of it are found since 1968 at many places in the Atlantic, covered with water and sediments. This you can read in the chapter "The legendary old Atlantis in the Bermuda Triangle".

About 10 000 B.C. , at the end of the last glacial time, in North-Africa, Iberia and the South of France a culture of high level lived. This you can see in paintings of that time in caves in Spain and southern France and drawings at rocks in the Sahara. In science this culture is called to its main places of finds Azilien and Tardenoisien.

 

 

About 9500 B.C. there was a gigantic impact of an asteroid in the northern Atlantic, probably in the area of the Banks of Bahama, which destroyed this culture nearly totally. The power of the impact moved the North-Pole 3500 Km in direction North, seen by the Atlantic, and destroyed with earthquakes and gigantic tsunamis the old Atlantis I with its men, as far as they were not protected by mountains, caves or lived at high plateaus.

Since 7000 B.C. began the evolution of the Atlantean Empire II, which was later on described by Platon. With that begins the history of the western world of today. Men , who had survived at protected places or in swimming ships or chests, followed after some time of relaxation and reproduction the shrinking back ice.

So they reached, for the sea-level was at the beginning 120 m lower than the level of today, with dry feet Great- Britain, Germany, Denmark and the Baltic Countries. In South-Iberia, into which immigrated men from North Africa ,as far as there were not also groups, which had survived at the high plateaus and in the caves of Iberia, was founded at the first good natural harbour place of the South a settlement.

For reason of the climatic and traffic-wise convenient position and the surrounding plains, which favoured a rich culture of farming and breeding, it developed to the centre of commerce and politic communication, when the Atlantic coast-land and one island after the other was flooded by the rising sea-level.

It is possible, but hardly to prove, that extraterrestrial influences were involved at the selection of this place and the following installation of an empire. To Platon and old Egyptean recordings it was the case. Drawings in the caves of northern Spain, showing objects similar to today observed UFOs are also pointing out to that. However men of that time were capable to create a first state system with an exemplary organization, high abilities in building and construction of towns and fortifications and high knowledge in extraction and processing of metals in the relative short time of two thousands of years out of nearly nothing.

It is also uncertain, if there was knowledge communicated from the nearly unknown culture of Atlantis I which was destroyed nearly completely in the catastrophe of 8500 B.C,. The knowledge of extraction and processing of metals, that was available since the beginning of the new founded state is pointing out to this.

 

 

What seems today to be a southern edge position was at the time of its foundation an absolutely central position in the developing empire. It is nearly certain, that the whole of North-Africa, included the Sahara, had a rural population in glacial epochs and the warmer times between them. In the sixth and seventh millennium B.C. numerous animals lived in the nowadays dried out valleys and wadis, as show bones of hippopotamus and crocodiles. Paintings at rocks of elephants, water buffalos and cows give an unmistakeable evidence of convenient living conditions. Certain proofs of a rural Neolithic are also found north of the Atlas in the Moroccain-Algerien border area. The King Jaime World Map, which is dated 1502 P.C. , but bases at considerable older maps, shows the Sahara as fertile country with big rivers, lakes and towns.

Although in all these areas scientific research is not very far advanced, that, what is today known, is sufficient for the proof of intensive rural life in North-Africa in the 6t, 5th and 4th millennium B.C.. With that you can conclude, that at that time North-Africa was an important part of the Atlantean settling area.

 

 

There are signs, that this rural use of the Sahara area was suddenly and than progressing changed by the impact of the meteorite of Aorounga in the Chad area around 2200 B.C.. It made a crater of 12 km diameter and its impact energy was able to cause as far as the 1500 km distant Egypt devastating damages. The central area was completely devastated and this was probably the beginning of the development of desert that you can see today and which induced the surviving rural settlers to go North or to the Nile.

You can suppose, that the ties with the Atlantean Empire decreased more and more since that catastrophe , because the precondition of rural life disappeared. To the West, in the Atlantic there were in the beginning a huge number of big or little islands which were flooded one after the other by the rising sea-level. Excepted were the Azores, Madeira, the Canaries and Cape Verde Islands and naturally the British Islands , which are part of the European continental shelf.

The population of the sinking islands moved in boats to Iberia or France or more East, using the Mediterranean Sea to more eastern lying countries which were nearly unsettled at that time. This was probably the source of the rural settlement of Greece around 7000 B.C., which is proved by science.

To the East there was the wide space of the Mediterranean Sea, which was in the beginning only in the western part as far as the western coast of Italy, western coast of Sicilia, Malta and across to the northern coast of Africa to Cape Bon part of the Atlantean settling and with that part of the later Atlantean Empire. More far to the East there was a kind of no man´s land, that passed over in the highland of Anatolia, in Canaan and Mesopotamia to the area of the next high-culture in the Iranean highlands and in the valley of the Indus. This position of the high-cultures corresponded with the tradition of division of earth to different extraterrestrial high-cultures.

According to finds, which were made at the Atlantic coast of Andalusia and in Spain in form of inscriptions from times before the Romans and also in caves of Lybia ,some researchers suppose, that there was a handwriting in form of runes of which are found until now 150 characters. This writing can be the very first on earth and is nearly 1000 years older than the cuneiform script of the Sumerians. The use of this writing was probably reserved for religious purposes and therefore taken for "holy". It was not used for mundane purposes, as normal notifications of daily life, or for report of extraordinary worldly occurrences. Probably it was taken for "holy" because Extraterrestrians used it for writing laws for men.

Because the order of the state contained a good working system of laws, a structure of classes of the society, an acknowledged, hereditary monarchy with unlimited power of law and military, it is not thinkable, that men alone and out of nearly nothing, without any help, could create a perfectly operating state like this. Therefore you can think, as tradition in all old cultures tells, that there were Extraterrestrian helpers, who were maintained in the religion of the state as adorable and honourable beings and as appealed helper in difficult situations. In western science of today they are, following the ideas of the Greeks and the Romans, called "gods" and treated as not realistic because the common Christian religion knows only one god, whose existence is also often denied by several "nature-scientists".

From these regulations, received from "Gods", developed men, who had got the task of care and protection of the cult, were called "priests" and formed a class of their own, a code of conduct for men, which provided, that there was no violation of the divine order. There were created laws and religious rites. A centre group of priests and official persons kept the keeping of the new norms under surveillance. For made by man, they were often incomplete and bounded to improvement. In the run of time they were more and more completed ,to let no circumstance that could happen without a fitting law.

Naturally there were violations of the divine order, as of the laws made by man. Because death penalty was not in the intention of the gods , because it would have exterminated many precious men, who were needed for the improvement of the world, the usual and often imposed maximum penalty was the banishment from the family or stronger, the exile from the state.

This form of punishment you can find in all succession states included the "new" states without Atlantean tradition Greece and Rome, found its expression in the European Middle Age in excommunication by the pope and in banishment by the emperor and was still put in practice by the imperialistic states of the 18th and 19th century in form of exile to the colonies.

So it happened, that in hundreds and thousands of years at the edge of all culture states lived exiled groups of men. They joined , as far as they were not killed by them, the here living Barbarians, that means, men of Cro-Magnon race at the cultural level of the younger Stone Age, and formed own states. Example for these states was naturally, because there was no known alternative, their mother-state. But some of the laws and religious rites, with which they had got in conflict, were not further used and replaced by "better". Corresponding to the share of men with Atlantean education in the new states was their cultural influence and you can suppose, that, if there was no influence from the next culture, there was a steep cultural gradient outside the borders of the empire.

Due to the bad experiences which the exiled had made with their mother-state, there was in these new nations , stirred always by the exiled, an inner aversion against it. This aversion was strengthened, when the successful growing mother-state tried to expand into the own area. They had to go or to submit to the internal refused system, as far as the mother state was willing to accept the exiled again in its area.

This process of spreading happened at all culture states of the beginning. It was strong at states with big growth of population and according rate of spreading, if there was a large area into which it could expand. Especially useful for expansion were convenient routes. These routes could be navigable rivers, good passable coasts, steppes without big mountains. In contrast to that were brusque mountain ranges , deep forests, marches and deserts nearly insuperable obstacles. So it happened , that the Atlantean state could expand into the nowadays areas of France, Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, Denmark, the Baltic countries, and over that into the plains of Russia and in the Mediterranean area as far as Tyrrhenia, Sardinia, South-Sicilia, South Italy, Crete and at last also Greece.

 

 

Egypt and Canaan were from the beginning part of its colonisation area, but took their own way for reason of its special conditions. Although there were some with temporary success crowned attempts to regain them. Such attempt, that happened about 2000 B.C. and the following decades, when Egypt was weakened by a cosmic catastrophe, is mentioned by Platon and found its way into history as conquest of Canaan and Egypt by the so called "Hyksos"and their following rule.

The only loose and often not good connection of the edge states with the centre had in consequence , that after the cosmic catastrophe of 1250 B.C. , in which the centre power in Andalusia was struck most, they sensed morning air. Groups of the Achaic Greek began war against the since long times hated Atlantean Troja and the northern Dorer attacked afterwards the countries of the, by the Troja-war and internal quarrels weakened Achaeens, and conquered them.

At the construction of the new, Classical Greece the new Greeks, which were composed from rests of Achaeens and Doric newcomers, tried to find new ways of organisation of a state. They informed themselves in Egypt, how a state must be organized. But the constitution, which gave Solon to the Greeks, deviated considerably from that of the old system.

Later on, there was in Italy a similar situation. Rome was at the beginning ruled by Etruscan kings, who imported Atlantean tradition. But it developed to an assembly point of persons who were exiled or left their country voluntary for other reason. They created a new form of state, which was since the beginning not stable and characterized by quarrels for the power. However it developed for some time to a stable empire but ended in military dictatorship, before it, always for reason of internal quarrels, was conquered by new nations coming from North.

_______________________________________

 

 

 

The Atlantean Empire (12b,18)

 

by Karl Juergen Hepke

 

Already in 1776 Jacob Bryant published an encyclopedia of six volumes with the title:"Analysis of Ancient Mythology". In it he diverted the Trojanians from the Meropians, which he characterized as a proud nation of great imagination and called themselves the descendants of the "earthbounded giants". The Meropians were also called the "Atlanteans"- the presumed descendants of Atlas.

To Bryant , these Meropians-Atlanteans settled also in the West as in the East." From that we notice, that either we do scientific research in Mauretania or at the Indus we find the same names." They were very skilful in science and claimed to be in bundle with their gods and heros. According to Platon the Egyptians of Sais reported to the Greek Solon, that the Atlanteans ruled over a large area in the Mediterranean, that reached in Europe as far as Tyrrhenia and through Lybia as far as Egypt.

Following the Bible (Jesaja 23) the ships of Tharsis, their capital-town, went to Sidon and Tyrus, out of what one can conclude, that they ruled also the East of the Mediterranean. Troja, which mastered the Dardanelles and with that the entrance to the Black Sea, was, to the information delivered by Homer, a branch founded by Tharsis.

 

 

Together with results of excavations from Greece (Mykene, Tyrins), Ugarit and Crete, naming only the most important, this is also an information about the maritime supremacy in the eastern Mediterranean.

As we have seen in other chapters, Atlantis I was founded about 5000 B.C., the time of the beginning of the European "Neolithikum", possibly with the support of an extraterrestrial culture. This culture gave high ability in extraction and processing of metals and stones to the Atlantians. Stones were often worked out in very large formats. (Megalithic constructions, walls of Zyklops)                                                                

As metals were won and crafted since nearly 3500 B.C.: Copper, tin, bronze, zinc, iron, gold, silver and today not farther used alloys as electron and an alloy from copper and white metals, which was called "mountain-ore", was very anticorrosive and "shined in the sun as fire".

The culture was initially founded as” Atlantis I „ at the edges and the islands of the old Atlantic before 10000 B.C. and moved after the impact of an asteroid, with following moving of the poles and by a change of climate caused rising of the sea level, to a country in which all these metals were available or easily obtainable at sea routes.

This country was the Iberian peninsula, its capital town was named Tharsis and was situated in Andalusia 10 km from the sea on a hill in a plain. Iberia offered at that time best conditions for the foundation of a culture like that.

It was practically an island at the edge of the Mediterranean area and formed a bridge between Africa and Europe. The sea trade between both areas was made by the sea ways round Iberia. To an observer of the earth with the view of an astronaut is this excellent quality of Iberia immediately visible. It is unique on earth.

Thanks of its geological structure, Iberia has well protection by mountain ranges to the Mediterranean, the North of Europe and Africa. Additional protection was given by water or marshlands in these regions. So it is comparable to a castle surrounded by water or moats. It was only well contactable from the West on the water way. Here was situated the large, fertile and climatic convenient plain of Andalusia, only open to the South-West, facing the in the beginning still existing islands of the Atlantic and the warm winds with rain from the sea.

But especially important were the deposits of nearly all important metal-ore in Iberia. The big, easily workable deposits of copper were situated in the northern mountain ranges of Andalusia, at the Rio Tinto and the mining place of today, Tharsis. They are convenient connected with the plain and the sea by short water ways. Also tin, gold, silver, iron, lead were found in Iberia and could be transported at the water way to Tharsis. Tin, which was needed in big quantities for the production of bronze could be transported at the sea way from North-West Portugal and the South of Britannia, Cornwall.

In the South of the large plain of Andalusia offered nature a bay, protected by a spit of land with the mouth of a river and at it , in good distance from the sea, a hill for the foundation of a town . That behind the town was a mountain that protected it against the cold winds from North, supplied with good stones for buildings of houses and temples and had fountains for the water supply of the town, seems for men of today nearly too much of convenient meetings. But also Platon, before more than 2000 years, saw in it an extraordinary position, which could only exist with help of a god, Poseidon.


So here was founded the town, which is the oldest of the western world and was named "Tharsis" after its protecting god "Thar", who is "Poseidon" in Greek. Later on at Phoenician times it was called in Greek writings "Tartessos" and Platon, who had the knowledge of it from Egypt, named it by the Greek adaptation of the name , that was used in Egypt: "Atlantis". This Egypt name, which occurs in the correspondence of the kings of Egypt as "Alasija" means more the country than the town.

Itself was called in the world of that early time only "the town" or "the port" or "the market". And this name was used until now through all times. Because what was newly built at Phoenician, Greek, Roman and Arabian times at the mouth of the river, which is now called Guadalete, was named Puerto de Menestheo, Amaria Alcanter and Santa Maria del Puerto, but occurs since it is Spanish owned again in all writings with its very old name "The Port" or in Spanish "El Puerto". For some time, when it was the main harbour of the Spanish Armada, it was called "Puerto Real". In the maps of today it is named "El Puerto de Santa Maria".

Here Columbus prepared his flag-ship the "Santa Maria" for the voyage across the Atlantic to America and here he shall have met the "anonymous seafarer", who told him his knowledge of the country far away in the West behind the ocean. This is even credible with the very old tradition of the port and its inhabitants.

Tharsis rose thanks of its convenient position and the knowledge of metal production and processing to the probably most signifying trading-place of the most important material for arms of that time, bronze. Without bronze there were no suitable arms and without that you were merciless delivered to enemies craving haul and power. The usual form of conduct of war was at that time, that the loser was killed till the last man, his property and sometimes also good looking women and girls were lead away and his towns and fields were totally devastated. This you can read in the Bible and in the "Ilias" of Homer. In the face of this situation it is understandable, that you could even at that time have dazzling business with the material for arms, bronze, indispensable for surviving.

The importance of Tharsis was due to its standing out position. In next proximity were situated the deposits of copper ore at the Rio Tinto, well connected with Tharsis by water ways. In the mountains of Andalusia there were also silver and gold. In Iberia was the only deposit of tin in the Mediterranean area and besides this Tharsis was able to block the way to the tin-mines of South-Britannia. With a suitable fleet of war-ships and branches in the eastern Mediterranean area , which could control the delivery from the mountains of Iran and by water-way of the Danube from Central Europe, it could take the tin- and with that the bronze monopoly of the western world of that time.

And Tharsis did so and grew more and more rich. For it was interested in an undisturbed commerce, which was the basis of its wealth, it built up large troops and a big fleet of (following Platon) 1200 war ships. With these 50-rowers, known for their speed, in slim construction with steep pulled up bow and sharp spur for ramming it controlled the whole Mediterranean, looked for undisturbed free commerce and gave a golden time period to the Mediterranean area, the Bronze Age.

This new archaeological period of time began in the Mediterranean Sea about 3000 B.C. with the first scientifically proved utilization of bronze in the Aegean Sea. Alloys of copper, which contained arsenic, were produced in Central Asia since several hundreds of years, but the discovery of tin-bronze, an alloy of copper and nearly 10% tin, with standing out metallurgical qualities as strength and resistance against corrosion, happened elsewhere. Many speaks in this point for Iberia, where all necessary raw materials and also the knowledge of production and processing of metal was available.

You can hardly imagine, that man of that day, without foreign help and instruction, had the idea to seek in the mountains for certain stones, from which he could win metals, which he did not know, under use of strong heat and mix with certain other materials. There must have been, at least in the beginning, an initial instruction. A further initial instruction was necessary to find that alloy, which had best possible technological qualities.

You must always keep in mind, that man of that time had no idea of chemistry and no metallurgical knowledge at all. He was therefore not able to win by consideration or aimed experiments a metal from its in nature occurring compounds, except, someone gave the exact recipe to him. He could not understand this recipe, but he could use it and by its use and the more or less good results he could learn further possible improvements.

With these facts it is obvious, that there must have been help from extraterrestrial side, except this knowledge of production and processing of metals came from the more than 10000 years lasting history of Atlantis. For 10000 years were possibly enough time for the without doubt technically talented Atlanteans to make such revolutionary discoveries.

If this help came from gods, as the myths tell, or extraterrestrial higher developed civilizations, as some think nowadays, or from the legendary with gods cooperating ancestors of the Atlanteans, is still resting open. For an own evolution of experience, the short time of maximal two thousand years for the almost simultaneous introduction of metals into history was never sufficient.

This shows once more, that the so-called "exact-sciences", which for a long time thought of an evolution of knowledge in processing copper, bronze and iron and called after it whole time periods, sometimes get to their borders. In this case it is surely better, to listen to the myths of nearly all civilized nations, who attribute the information about processing of metals to a god of forge and mines.

 

An today unquestionable fact is, that about 3000 B.C. the utilization of gold, silver, lead, copper, tin and also iron was known. Copper and tin were with utilization of additives like antimony, which makes bronze stronger and earlier melting, worked out to bronze, which is outstanding well suited to produce arms and tools by casting and forging.

Also iron and its good qualities as material for arms was already known. But it was because of its susceptibility to corrosion and difficult processing not very popular. Besides this, the better workable and good looking bronze was sufficiently available and the Atlanteans, who earned much "money" with their bronze monopoly, were not very much interested in the development and spread of iron technology.

 

The fate of a main place of modern archaeology, Troja, was especially connected with the Bronze Age. In the Aegaen Sea bronze occurs first in the proximity of the Dardanelles, shortly after Troja was founded by the Atlanteans for commerce and as strategic base.

The area of Troja and as well some of the islands near it had remarkable deposits of gold, silver, copper and also low quantities of tin.

Therefore they were important areas for the metal interest of the Atlanteans and were early seized by them. For example, the gold deposits of the island of Thasos were long before the foundation of Troja exploited by the Atlanteans (13). But the metal of fate for Troja was obviously bronze. Not only that the Atlantian and classical Troja and the Bronze Age began at the same time, it ended also simultaneously. Troja was obviously a production and trading center of tin-bronze and lost its importance after the fall of the Atlantian empire and its monopoly of bronze.

This important position of Troja explains much better the costly raid of the Greek to Troja, which found its way into literature as "The Trojanic War", than the robbery of "Bel Helene" which was probably invented by Homer or founded in the history of robbery of Greek women by the at Troja settling Atlantians, as Herodot tells.

For tin-bronze got to a scarce commodity in the Mediterranean area after the natural desaster of 1250 B.C., which lead to the destruction of Tharsis. This is written on tiles, which were found in Achaic-Greek palaces. Because bronze was an important material for arms and the Greek supposed big stocks of it at Troja, a raid for it seemed to be lucrative. As history showed, it was not as supposed. The inner quarrels of the achaic countries after disappearance of the Atlantean order and the following campaign of revenge of the "Sea-People" destroyed the Achaic Greek world and with it the whole culture.

With the rich copper deposits of Cyprus was inevitable given the expansion of the Atlantean area to the eastern Mediterranean. With it were very early seized the at the opposite mainland situated places with ports Tyrus, Ugarit and Sidon. Later on followed several smaller ones as Atlantean area of settlement and influence. The here growing population, which is called Kanaanean was therefore always more or less living in Atlantean way. The tin deposits in the mountains of Armenia and Iran arouse also early the interest of the Atlanteans and lead again and again to settlement of Atlantean people in this area.

To connect the eastern Mediterranean with the western by safe sea-ways were founded branches at Malta , Crete, Thera and at the south coast of Italy and Sicilia. Malta, Crete and Thera came very soon completely under Atlantean influence and got the first right branches with Atlantean culture.

Cyprus and Iberia wer the most important suppliers of copper in the Mediterranean and Atlantic area. The until today known mining areas for tin are Czechia, Portugal, Romania, Iberia, Armenia, Iran and Cornwall. Iberia and Cornwall were safe in Atlantean hands. Troja controlled the entrance to the Black Sea and with that possible supply coming from Romania and Czechia by Danube and Black Sea. With that Troja had a similar importance for the tin coming from the Danube as Tharsis for the tin coming from the Atlantic. The tin delivery from the mountains of Armenia and Iran were controlled by Kanaan. With these conditions there was no obstacle against the creating of an Atlantian bronze monopoly.

While the culture at the Greek mainland, which was not contacted by the Atlantean aspiration to power rested at a level not much impressing, was made at for the Atlantian commerce important other places outstanding cultural and economic progress. So the since long time existing and flowering rural community at Crete developed in course of the 20th century B.C. by the Atlantian metal commerce to a society of great luxury. It came to an until than not attained architecture with elaborated open palaces, that reflected the princely rule.

The most famous palace, large 19000 m2 was created at Knossos, but also at Phaistos and Mallia were residences of the upper class nearly as famous.
Joined with these palaces were gigantic storage complexes for oil, cereal and wine and it is probable, that Crete was at that time the arsenal of the land- and seaforces , which were stationed in the eastern Mediterranean.

At all these places had been important settlements before, which were now favoured by the economic upswing, so that some old established family and also some newcomer, coming with commerce into the country, got a high degree of prosperity.

The palaces were excellent arranged structures with a rectangular central courtyard and detached areas for official and familiar life, for trade and religious performances and stocks. Masterful artists decorated the palaces with marvellous frescos which interpreted the Minoan and Atlantean lifestyle.

The enormous performances of forming art wer accompanied by raising political power and increasing wealth. Also outside of the palaces was the standard of living high. This we can see in urban waste water systems and streets plastered with cobblestones.

Although the Minoan culture at Crete was on no account monotonous or uniform, the style of life seems not to be changed in the run of time. The reason for this stability of culture and of religious customs in all states of the Atlantean world is probably to find in the fact, that religion and culture were no own production in big parts. They were given to the Atlanteans at the foundation of their state by their ancestors and at least by an extraterrestrial High-Culture. The Atlantians were always conscious of that and therefore nobody risked to change anything of it.

If the base of Crete was used in the about 2000 B.C. beginning activities of conquest and settlement of Atlantean groups in the eastern Mediterranean area, is not known. But there was certainly a bigger war quarrel at that time. The report, that found Solon in Egypt told of a campaign of Atlanteans which should subjugate, following the opinion of the Egyptians, the whole eastern Mediterranean. But it failed, because of the enraged resistance of the Greeks, especially the Athenians.



The campaign of the Hyksos at Egypt about 1780 B.C., which lead to a conquest and an 130 years lasting foreign rule over the Mediterranean part of Egypt could have been the historically known effect of this war to Egypt. The "Hyksos" were called in Egypt "chiefs of the foreign countries" and imported a new technic of battle: Horses with chariots. A technic, which was typical for Atlantean forces (see Platon).

For the Hyksos were obviously task forces operating under "chiefs" without a central leader, their action is typical for the at that time by the Atlanteans used method of spreading, which was not supported by the central power of Tharsis. Also in other Asian states we can see, that they operated there in the same style.

After the eruption of the volcano at Thera about 1650 B.C. became wide agriculturally used areas of Crete infertile by salinization of the soil by the "Tsunami" (sea-wave) and the poisonous rain of volcano-ashes produced by the eruption. For the base of Atlantean life was always an excellent organized agriculture and cattle breeding, Crete lost its importance.

Certainly not without armed force was therefore conquered the southern part of Greece and became the country of the "Achaeans". This armed penetration into a country, which was already used by others enforced the animosity of the Greeks against the Atlanteans. This lead later to the war of Troja and much later to the hundreds of years lasting quarrels between Greece and the Atlantean succession states Phoenicia and Carthage.

The most important foundations of the Atlanteans in Greece were Mykene and Tyrins
. Mykene und Tyrins

Besides that, there was a number of towns in which metal working and production of ceramic reached a high level.

Although they belonged to the Atlantean empire at its mighty times, there was probably a certain opposition. A main cause of offence was certainly the dominance of the Atlantean branch Troja, which controlled the commerce of metals and gave the base of the Atlantean fleet which controlled the Aegaean Sea.

But this control of their economical and political activities, which was naturally combined with certain charges, pleased not much the Achaeans, who liked their freedom and their wealth and beneath the surface, which was kept quiet by Atlantean control, this was making seethe.

It is necessary to see, that the majority of the Achaean kings and princes had emigrated from the Atlantean central state to live more independent at Greece. Some of them were even exiled because of their unruliness. Now they had again the yoke in the neck, which was probably not so pressing as in the centre, but enough pressing to induce some and the other to go East to Anatolia, Kanaan or to the mountains of Armenia or Iran, where he could still make his luck in independence.

The Minoic and also the following Achaic wealth had developed from a carefully structured, culturally strengthened and highly specialized society with reliable relations of commerce. The raw materials as the manufactured products were transported over sea and political private enterprises or even revolutions as disruptions of the commerce by private operations had possibly caused a domino-effect with dramatic consequences for the whole Atlantean economy.

This was very good known at the Atlantean centre and with their strong and fast fleet they took care, that every possible troublemaker was quickly brought back to common sense. There was not much space in this stable system for the private initiative of chiefs or princes.

The fleet that guaranteed order was supported by a number of ports which were later, when times got more agitated, transformed into strong fortresses. In this number were certainly Malta, Troja and Tyrus. In addition there were fortified places of commerce where the local element was well represented as Tyrins, Ugarit, Sidon and other primary at the Greek and Phoenician coast situated places.

Recordings which were found in Hattusa are telling of efforts to set also foot at the coast of Asia Minor at Milet. The here resident Karers and later on the Hittites prevented such attempts. On the other hand was Cyprus as principal supplier of copper for bronze as long in Atlantean and later on in Phoenician hand till the classical strengthened Greece took it away from them.

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Atlantis, Beginning of the Metal Age

 

by Karl Juergen Hepke

 

After the conquest of Iberia by Rome since 209 B.C. and the giving up of the claims of Carthage for this country 201 B.C. as result of the second Punic war against the Romans, Rome got from Iberia between 205 B.C. and 198 B.C. 2000 kg of gold and 200000 kg of silver. This quantity of metal proves, that Iberia was capable to deliver big amounts of precious metals from local production.

But there were not only precious metals what Iberia could produce, long before the Romans came. Primary it produced copper and tin. Both important components of bronze, which was nearly the only material for weapons in the time before 1000 B.C.

The costly built roman town Munigua at the southern edge of Sierra Morena, which had a terraced sanctuary, forum, temple, thermes and a necropolis with mausoleum and can therefore be called a signifying and prosperous town, is built in wide areas upon and with slag. The enormous quantity of slag shows nearly unambiguously the extraction of copper from combined copper-iron ore, long before the Romans built their town upon the hills of slag. The partly very high content of iron in the slag shows, that the producer was not interested in extraction of it, but in the extraction of copper. Iron was only a by-product at that time.

The wealth of the roman town seems to show, that in combination with copper and iron ore there were also precious metals and primary gold in the deposits. The Romans were probably more interested in this, in the time of roman emperors highly estimated precious metal, than in copper. They used iron for their weapons and this iron came from Italy or from production facilities near Munigua, which were built at places near more iron bearing deposits. Copper and bronze was only used for decoration of arms and military equipment of rich military persons as far as they did not prefer gold or silver.

The slag upon which Munigua was built and which also can be found at other ore deposits of Sierra Morena, are rests of the copper production from sulphureous copper compounds as copper-sulphide and copper-pyrite. From these ores, which are bearing in the deposits of Sierra Morena also iron-sulphide and iron-oxide, you can win metallic copper by heating. This is done by partial oxidation and accumulation by removal of liquid phases. It is necessary, to separate the sulphide-melt or the molten metal from the molten rock. This happens at temperatures beneath 1400°C. To reach this temperature you must have charcoal and a strengthened air stream in a fire resisting, with clay built heater. Surcharge to the ore-coal mix in form of calcium-oxide (CaO) , salt (NaCl), ashes of charcoal,and the aluminium -oxyde coming from the clay lining of the heater gives the composition and the temperature of solidification of the slag. It is, following the parts of the compounds between 1100° and 1000°C. With luck you can reach 900°C.

The metallic product is a copper that contains about 4,5% iron in eutectic structure. At the other side contains the here produced iron about 10% copper, also in eutectic structure. The parts in reality are often two times that of theory.

At the height time of the town of Munigua there was no more production in it. There was only one workshop found outside of the town wall with a heater which was interpreted as "heater for metal production" and layers of charcoal , which proved the use of it as material for heating and reduction. The activities of metal-production were moved outside cause of noise and smoke bothering. The first place of metal-production was found in a distance of 900 m from the town.

Over that the whole surrounding area of the Sierra Morena is marked by places of ore-mining and metal production.

6 km north-west: Cerro de las Minillas (iron ?). In the southern slag-heap were found fragments of "Roman" transport and stock containers.

2 km west: Pilar de la Pepa ( iron ?). In rests of buildings found bricks are corresponding those of the terrace-sanctuary of Munigua.

400 m distance: Pilar de las Golondrias. Old place of metal production and rests of "antique"-constructions.

14 km north: El Pedroso and El Acebucal. Three places with rests of production.

30 km north: Cerro del Hierro. Iron mining still in 20th century. With that the until 50 m deep antique mines were destroyed. Finds out of "Roman" time: Tools and lamp of terracotta show the early use.

4 km south of Cierro del Hiero, El Escorial: At both sides of a creek were found extended areas of slags and rests of production heaters.

Setefilla-Mesa del Almendra, north-east of Lora del Rio. Proved settlement in the middle of the second millennium B.C. (Bronze Age). Local metal production, necropolis from the first half of the first millennium B.C. at the way Guadalquivir-Constantine. Direct road connection in direction south-south-west through Carmona, Utrera to Tharsis-Tartessos (Puerto)

To these, as an example listed places, which were examined archaeologically and metallurgically because they are in use no more, follow to the west the until now producing rich deposits of copper ore at the Rio Tinto and at Tharsis (the old name was used for this modernized mining place). Between these old and new places are many partly given up mining places with characterizing names in connection with "Minas" or "Minillas".

The big mining places of copper ore at the Rio Tinto and Tharsis are today owned by British joint-stock companies and are connected by railway-lines with the docks at Huelva. The copper ore goes from there by ship mainly to England to the tin, in contrary to the Atlantean time when the tin of England came to the copper of Andalusia. The railway line from Minas de Rio Tinto follows the course of the river, which was in Atlantean time the way of transport. The town of Niebla, which existed already in Atlantian time was archaeologically proved place of production and transport.

The production of copper was done also here by roasting the sulphide ore. Some ores, for example those of Pilar de la Pepa are polymetalic. So also silver and gold can be won. This kind of copper and silver production is valid for the whole range of pyrite , situated west of Seville as far as the Atlantic. Facing these still now rich ore stocks in the neighbourhood of the Andalusian plain with its natural water-courses and its additionally created canals Platon is richly affirmed with his assertions concerning the wealth of Atlantis.

But copper, gold and silver were only one side of the Atlantean wealth. The other side was that of tin which is needed for the production of bronze. Until now there is no information about tin and lead winning in Sierra Morena.

The tin for the production of bronze came already at that time from the rich deposits in the North-West of Iberia, from Galizia and to South following Portuguese provinces. In the mountain range which goes from La Coruna to Pontevedra, Vieira do Minho, Vila Real until Viseu nearly parallel to the coast-line , are situated until now rich mines of tin. They were in the beginning of Bronze Age the only supply place in the western world.( Later on it was assisted by the tin supply from the South of Britannia, Cornwall ).

The mines are here situated in the valleys of little rivers, which flow to main rivers flowing into the Atlantic. Thanks of the rich structuring of the mountain range , there is nearly each 50 km one of these systems, enabling the transport of tin or ore to the Atlantic at the waterway.

The large number of megatihic stones and dolmen in this about 150 km large coast line proves, that the Atlantean coast-culture has early seized it. The Bronze Age of Atlantis-Andaluz could begin, when shipping was enough developed for commerce along the coast without big problems. The voyage of 900 km from Galizia to Andalusia took, thanks of the continually blowing west-winds only four days, with interruption in the night, and two days by direct sailing without rest.

From old Greek reports is known, that the southern coast of Iberia could be passed also at night thanks of signal fires on towers. It is possible, that there were similar furnishings at the western coast, which was never reached by strangers at that time, .

From the historical dates of the Mediterranean area is known, that Troja was founded about 3000 B.C. In this time the first Pharaohs, who came most likely from the West, seized the rule in Egypt and founded the Old Empire. In the Mediterranean area began the Bronze Age. It seems not to be foolish to suppose, that still before 3000 B.C. the trade by ship along the western coast of Iberia was done reliable and gave the precondition to supply the Atlanteans with superior arms. Equipped with these arms of bronze they could pick out the raisins out of the cake in the eastern Mediterranean area.

Following the previous knowledge these raisins were: Crete (for basis), Thasos (gold), Cyprus (copper) ,Ugarit and Tyrus (places for commerce), Egypt (gold and cereal) and Troja (strategically important to protect the Mediterranean against attacks from the Black Sea). The western Mediterranean as far as Sicily and Tarent was since the beginning owned by them. (See Platon)

But back to the metal. The production of tin from ore is much easier than that of copper. Tin needs only temperatures about 500°C, that you can reach in a good fire of wood. Who knows the copper technology, has no problem with that of tin. Similar it looks with the bronze technology. Tin lowers the melting point of copper, that you can cast bronze much easier than copper. If the copper contains iron or arsen, as naturally given by the ores from Sierra Morena, the strength of the tin-bronze is additionally raised. This gives a material for arms, superior to other tin-bronzes.

The Atlantians had so with the natural ore deposits of their country the means in hand to rise to the leading military power of that time. As the recent insights in history show, they have made the most of it and reached a leading position at the coasts of Atlantic its bordering seas and rivers and the Mediterranean area. Meanwhile the signs are increasing, that they even crossed the Atlantic and had influence to the early cultures of America as that of the Olmekes.

It is not surprising, that men, who reached a technological leadership like that to the rest of known mankind, were proud of it. They felt being favoured by their Gods and were it, if you believe in that. Being proud of that leaded inevitable to an arrogance and a feeling of superiority to other men.

You could say, the development and mastery of the technology of metals, which was "High Tech" at all times, gave and gives still now reason for the claim of a leading position by the nations, that have their origin in Atlantis. These may be the Carthageans, Romans, Spaniards, French, English, Germans or now the mix up of all them, the North Americans, to name only the most conspicuous.

In the face of its proved ability to snatch the secrets from metals and its alloys, it is not surprising that the Atlanteans and their following nations had a particular liking of these new materials and its processing. Still now we are amazed when we see and can understand by which talent, which intelligence and which craftsmanship still than was worked on gold, silver, bronze and iron.

Naturally, there remained only a little bit of that than created metal works of art. Here will be shown only a selection of some phases. Naming the right date of production is often for science a real problem, because good works of art are often used for hundreds of years.

 

 

 

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